Nursing And Finance

Nursing And Finance

Comparison of Hospitals
Hospitals are characterized by diverse and unique aspects which dictates how duties are executed in the process of enhancing well-being of customers. In most health institutions, nature of consideration from the viewpoint of clients is progressively utilized in assessing therapeutic services execution. This is key in promoting health of society since hospitals are expected to ensure that all involved stakeholders are satisfied (Olivier, 2016ss). It is entrenched that human services frameworks vary in execution due to diversity in requirements. This study compared various hospitals such as; Memorial Hospital of Tampa, Bayfront Health-ST St Petersburg, and Tampa Community Hospital and provides the findings.

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General information
Contrasts between hospitals in how human services clients esteem distinctive parts of consideration are hard to clarify. Further hypothesizing should consider that significance and execution evaluations are decidedly related, that individuals contrast their encounters and those of others, and that general and instrumental qualities may be connected through the foundations of the therapeutic services framework. All hospitals are of Acute Care Hospital type indicating that they provide the following services except for Memorial Hospital which is not able to track patients’ lab results, tests and referrals electronically between visits;
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Consanguinity is the union or marriage between people of the same blood. Consanguinity is practiced mainly in third world countries such as Africa and Asia where the Islamic culture is prevalent. Consanguineous marriages form the base of many mental and physical disabilities. In countries such as Iran, consanguinity marriages are widespread and have led to devastating effects such as increased deaths and disabilities in fetal and infants. The paper comprehensively addresses various components of consanguinity marriages including the global prevalence, impact on the health risks of the population, and cultural and ethical considerations of consanguinity marriages.

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Define consanguinity
Consanguinity is the union between individuals of the same blood. The union takes place between close relatives such as first or second cousins (Bener & Mohammad, 2017). Identify the global prevalence of consanguinity.
The incidence of consanguinity is determined by numerous factors such as religion, socio-economic, demographic, and cultural factors. The practice is embraced mostly in South India, West Asia, and North Africa with research showing a prevalence rate of 20-50% in these geographical areas (Bener & Mohammad, 2017). First cousin marriages constitute almost 30% of all marriages in the regions mentioned above. Consanguineous marriages are also predominant among immigrant communities residing in highly consanguineous nations like Pakistan, Lebanon, North America, Turkey, Europe, and Australia. The high prevalence of consanguinity unions together with the large sizes of the family in some societies induces expression of autosomal recessive diseases which might come with strange or new syndromes (Bener & Mohammad, 2017).

Describe the impact on population health risks
Consanguineous marriages lead to debilitating effects on the health of the population. According to Khan et al. (2016), offspring sired in a consanguineous unions are at higher risk of contracting anemia (28.6%), hypertension (18.6%), asthma (10%), obesity (17.1%), diabetes (18.6%), and respiratory disease (7.1%) than those born in other marriages. Consanguinity also increases the risk of malformation in the children at alarming rates with mental retardation (28.7%), anemia (14.7%), dwarfism (3.9%), skin disorders (5.4%), deafness and speech complications (23.3%), syndrome (15.5%), and blindness (8.5%) (Khan et al., 2016). These conditions lead to increase in mortality and morbidity rates among the infants. It is therefore advisable for young couples in consanguineous marriages to seek preconception genetic counseling before getting children to avoid the adverse effects of consanguinity. Discuss the cultural and ethical considerations of consanguineous unions Consanguinity is determined by a variety of factors such as demographic, cultural, geographic, religious, and socio-economic factors. The practice is usually dominant among the populations with low education, low socio-economic status, and those residing in rural areas. Certain cultures and religions such as Muslim increases the chances of getting into a consanguinity marriage. Consanguinity is associated with various ethical issues such as degradation of the cultural beliefs and values of a specific community (Bener & Mohammad, 2017).

Consanguinity is the union between individuals of the same blood. It is very common in geographical regions with large percentages of Muslims such as Africa and Asia. Consanguineous marriages result in adverse effects on the health of the offspring. For instance, it leads to diseases such as anemia, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and asthma. Moreover, consanguinity causes mental disorders like mental retardation, anemia, dwarfism, skin disorders, deafness and speech complications, syndrome, and blindness. Young couples in consanguineous marriages should seek preconception genetic counseling before getting children to counter the debilitating consequences of consanguinity.


1. Bener, A., and Mohammad, R. R. (2017). Global distribution of consanguinity and their impact on complex diseases: Genetic disorders from an endogamous population. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 18(4), 315-320.
2. Khan, J., Ali, A., Khan, B. T., Ahmad, Z., and Shams, W. A. (2016). Impact of consanguinity on health in a highly endogamous population in District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of Genetic Disorders and Genetic Reports, 2015.

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Episodic SOAP Notes

Episodic SOAP Notes

The paper seeks to give psychiatric analysis among two different diagnosis of a patient. It discusses the psychological attributions of schizophrenia bipolar type, adjustment disorders, schizoaffective disorder, and unspecified condition that is pegged on substance abuse based on the working and differential diagnosis. There is a need to understand the fact that patients with substance withdrawal and mental illness need to have a clear assessment touching on the suicidal and aggressive behavior in the overall system in one way or the other. This gesture must be carried out regardless of the specific diagnosis done on the patient (Richard-Eaglin & Johnson, 2019). It is also essential for the assessor to be aware of the fact that the patient may admit experiences from some symptoms to help maintain the trust of the client. Finally, the assessor must be sure to fully document the observations in the health record in order to make psychiatrists, nurses, and doctors diagnose more appropriately the specific problem encountered by the patient.

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Working Diagnosis
The patient under analysis in this area is a female of 45 years old who interacts well with other staff in the workplace but gets upset once she finds out that she is pregnant after medical examination. The assessor, in this case, would consider three valuable domains relating to schizophrenia with bipolar type issues. These domains include disorganized speech and thinking, hallucinations, and delusions. However, visual hallucinations may be seen as visual stimuli. For example, a shadow may become e disturbing black dog. Such issues occur with other medical conditions such as depression on the patient due to the sudden realization of her pregnancy (Fowler, Conner & Smith, 2018). It may also be manifested as an aura with a brain or seizure. However, both cases rarely occur at the same time as a patient.
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Caring for Schizophrenia

Caring for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a health condition that impairs a person’s psychological and social wellbeing. Typically, this illness exhibits positive signs such as paranoid delusions, and hallucinations (Mishra, et al., 2017). The patient may also show negative signs such as social withdrawal, loss of will, flattened affect, and loss of sense of pleasure. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how to take good care of a schizophrenia patient.

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Taking care of Schizophrenia Patients
Schizophrenia is a challenging condition to handle due to its complex and incomprehensible causes. The process of caring for individuals suffering from this condition include combining medical treatment and psychological interventions, given the different degree that each option has to restore the wellbeing of the patient.

Treatment options
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Practice Agreements for Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners

Practice Agreements for Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners

A psychiatric Nurse Practitioner is licensed to provide mental healthcare as specified by the ANA scope of practice to adult, geriatric, and pediatric populations. The Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNP) perform a variety of roles including performing mental health evaluations to determine psychiatric conditions, interpreting lab and other diagnostic procedures, and prescribing of drugs among other functions. The paper comprehensively discusses various components associated with PMHNP including the practice agreements in California, physician collaboration issues, and barriers for PMHNP practicing independently in California.

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Practice Agreements for PMHNPs
The PMHNP performs duties under the scope of Registered Nurses (RN) relying on standardized procedures for authorization to execute overlapping medical functions. They operate under the Nursing Practice Act (NPA) to perform a variety of roles including mental and physical assessments, prevention of diseases, conducting of immunization and skin tests among others. The Californian PMHNPs are mandated to provide mental health services in collaboration with a consulting physician (Coffman et al., 2018). The other practice agreement is that NPs in California are not permitted to sign death certificates. Only qualified Medical Doctor (MD) is allowed to sign a death certificate (Xue et al., 2016). The PMHNPs are only authorized to approve handicap parking permits and thus cannot declare someone dead.
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Certification Plan

Certification Plan

A Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) is a registered nurse (RN) who has pursued a master’s degree as a nurse practitioner with a focus on psychiatric-mental health. A PMHNP is usually trained to offer holistic care to the patients to bridge the gap between mental and physical health. The scope of practice for NPs varies from one state to another. The NPs in California operate under restrictive authority, and thus they perform some duties under the supervision of a consulting physician. Some of these roles include prescribing medications and interpreting diagnostic tests. The paper comprehensively addresses the practice environment of PMHNPs in California and compares it with that of Nevada and also points out the professional issues that one needs to consider to be able to acquire certification.

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PMHNP Practice Environment for California
In California, the NPs are categorized under restrictive practice authority meaning that they can only perform some roles under the oversight of a consulting physician (Coffman et al., 2018). Some of these duties include prescribing medications and interpreting laboratory tests. The legal responsibility of the PMHNPs lies in the hands of the physicians and are thus required to determine the level of supervision, communicate regularly, and oversee the standards of care provided by the NPs (California Healthcare Foundation, 2018).
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Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Alzheimer’s disease

Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Alzheimer disease

Minor or Major Neurocognitive Disorder due to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) refers to the DSM-5 or the diagnosis allotted to patients with mental deficits linked to the onset and progression of the AD. The Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological condition that results in continuous cognitive dysfunction because of the incursion of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques in cholinergic neurons. The disorder leads to a reduction in the production of acetylcholine of the affected neurons usually evidenced by progressive loss of memory, and other behavioural signs and symptoms. The paper comprehensively describes the diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorder due to AD, including the treatment and its associated risks.

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The Diagnostic Criteria
The DSM-5 unfolds various elements of the diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorder due to AD:
Ø The patient fulfils the diagnostic criteria for minor or major neurocognitive disease
Ø There are gradual or insidious onset and progression of cognitive decline
Ø The family history or genetic testing rules the presence of causative Alzheimer’s genetic mutation
Ø Evidence shows a decline in memory and a reduction in the learning capacity
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