Case Study: Diagnosis and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Case Study: Diagnosis and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder


Introduction
It is normal to experience anxiety from time to time in life especially when one is stressed. However, excessive and persistent worry and anxiety can be challenging to control and affect the day day-to-day activities. Excessive and prolonged anxiety can a sign of a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by excessive and persistent worry about many different things. Individuals with GAD may antedate calamities and seem to be much concerned about work, family, health, money, and other issues. Baer (2015) states that people with GAD have a challenge in a controlling their worry.

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They are much worried about actual events or may anticipate the worst even when there is seeming reason for concern. GAD has symptoms similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and other forms of anxiety although they are all different conditions. Like diabetes and heart disease, anxiety disorders are complex and result from a combination of developmental, behavioral, genetic and other factors (Gerbarg & Brown, 2017). GAD can be treated using specific types of psychotherapy and drugs based on the preference of the patient and physician. This paper seeks to explore treatment case for a 46-year old male patient diagnosed with GAD. Besides the paper discusses some treatment decisions which will be put into consideration and their rationalization in the treatment of GAD as well as factors that can affect the patient’s pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic decision.
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Case Study: Severe Depression

Case Study:Severe Depression


Introduction
US Hispanics form the largest minority group in the country. Studies reveal that they face inconsistencies in the recognition and treatment of major depression (Roberto et al., 2005). Severe depression is the mental problem that is commonly diagnosed by primary care physicians. Moreover, the risk of severe depression is high among US-born Mexican Americans (Ring & Marquis, 1991). However, further studies indicate that Mexican immigrants have a significantly lower rate of severe depression compared to US-born Mexican Americans. The reason for this observation is that the immigrants experience less deprivation than US-born Hispanics. Likewise, according to Burnam, Hough, Escobar et al. (1987), they maintain a stronger family alignment which protects them from depression. This paper considers the case of a 32-year-old Hispanic American male who with severe depression and the treatment options available. The decision alternatives are considered to select the best option with the least exposure.

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Decision Point One
Selected Decision
Begin Zoloft 25 mg orally daily
Reason for Selection
Zoloft and Prozac are some of the most powerful prescriptions utilized to treat depression and other mental issues (Montgomery & Asberg, 1979). Zoloft is sertraline hydrochloride and is a good recommendation since it is linked with improving sleep, energy, and appetite (Stahl, 2014b). The 32-year-old Hispanic American male in this case suffers from insomnia, has lost interest in physical activities leading to gaining weight, avoiding socializing with others, and back pains. Zoloft also can aid with losing weight which this client also required having gained 15 pounds in the last 2 months. Prozac is attributed to many severe side effects hence Zoloft was the best option for this client.
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Assessing and Treating Patients with Pain

Assessing and Treating Patients with Pain



Introduction

Complex regional pain disorder also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy refers to a long-lasting pain illness which affects mostly one limb (leg, arm, hand, or foot) usually following an injury. Studies reveal that the disorder is as a result of damage to or breakdown of the peripheral and central nervous systems (Lohnberg & Altmaier, 2013). The ailment is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and alterations in skin color, body temperature, and inflammation in the affected area (Marinus, Moseley, & Birklein et al., 2011). This particular case study is an assessment and treatment of a 43-year old white male who has been diagnosed with complex regional pain disorder. Three decision points are being explored to explain the reason for selecting the decision, expected results, and how the actual results differ from the expected results.

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Decision Point One
Selected Decision
Amitriptyline 25 mg po QHS and titrate upwards weekly by 25 mg to a max dose of 200 mg per day.
Reason for Selection
The patient is has chronic neuropathic pain as a result of nerve damage. Amitriptyline is a good prescription for patients who suffer pain as a result of damages in the nerves. The drug is also a tricyclic antidepressant and can serve to enhance mood and feelings of well-being, get rid of anxiety and tension, abate insomnia, and boost one’s level of energy. This particular patient reports that the family doctor also suggested he had depression. The progressive increment in the dosage of the drug is to ensure that the patient adapts to the effect of the drug progressively and hence eliminating the potential side effects (Schwartzman, Erwin & Alexander, 2009). Other medications are available for this ailment. However, their side effects are far beyond the ones a patient taking amitriptyline experienced.
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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotic



Introduction
Antipsychotic is a psychiatric drug that is availed through prescription and licensing to treat different mental health illness, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Seeman, 2015). Other antipsychotics also treat extreme anxiety, physical problems like nausea, agitation as well as dementia. The antipsychotic prescription occurs in many different ways. Usually, it is taken orally in form of tablet or liquid and at other times, as depot injections. It is difficult to tell how an individual will respond to a given kind of prescription. This paper will argue using three decisions on how to prescribe medication to this case study ‘Puerto Rican woman with Comorbid addiction’.

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Decision #1
Selected Decision
Prescribe Antabuse (Disulfiram) dosage of 250mg orally every morning.
Reason for Selection
Mrs. Perez was diagnosed with alcohol use disorder and of the many ways to treat this disorder; use of Cvek (2011)’s Antabuse (disulfiram) as the best approach. She had chronic alcoholism and Antabuse is appropriate for such a person. Disulfiram blocks that enzyme which metabolizes alcohol intake and generates negative side effects when mixed with alcohol in the body. As a result, the medication will tend to keep the individual from drinking alcohol. Some of the side effects of Antabuse include metallic taste in the mouth, redness, chest pains, fast pounding heartbeats, spinning sensation.
Expected Results
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Alzheimer’s Therapy

Alzheimer’s Therapy


Assessing and Treating Individuals with Alzheimer Disorders
Introduction
Alzheimer disorder is a continuous neurodegenerative disorder with a high statistical growth in the modern world. Research shows that the number of individuals with Alzheimer’s Disorder dementia is estimated to triple by the year 2050. The rise in Alzheimer’s Disorder prevalence has heightened the importance of more research on Alzheimer’s Disorder treatment. Past information and data have revealed that ancient medicine can be a source of motivation and inspiration to acquire new therapies (Maruish, 2012).

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There is a type of dementia in ancient Iranian medicine with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disorder. Iranian ancient medicine explains the causes of disorders by recognized Greek concept, the humorist. In this concept, all human organs have a health temperament that has four essential qualities such as coldness, hotness, wetness and dryness. When the equilibrium state of these qualities is disturbed, the organs transform to unhealthy temperament which was traditionally referred to as “intemperament.” For example, if the temperament of the brain is exposed to coldness, cold intemperament in the brain will happen. By this concept, ancient Iranian medicine categorizes dementia into four groups: cold and wet, simple cold, hot and dry and cold and dry. This paper focuses on how therapy can be provided in the case of a seventy-six old man diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disorder.
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