Management of patient with ADHD

Management of patient with ADHD


Introduction
The child presented (Katie) is suffering from a psychiatric condition, and therefore some diagnostic measures need to be put in place to ensure that the right interventions are put in place to help Katie (Réus et al., 2015). In doing so, differential diagnosis, a treatment plan for psychotherapy and psychopharmacology are essential in ensuring that proper care is given to the child. Differential diagnosis helps in ruling out any condition that may be related to the condition that Katie is suffering from (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The treatment plan for psychotherapy and psychopharmacology helps in ensuring that the child gets the required treatment that will help in alleviating the condition affect the child.

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Decision one- Differential diagnosis
Differential diagnosis is one of the essential steps towards getting the real problem affecting the child. It evident that different conditions mimic Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in their presentation and therefore a thorough analysis is essential regarding running various diagnostic procedures that will help in ruling out certain conditions that may have similar presentations as that one of ADHD (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). Some disorders can come misdiagnosed for ADHD. Some of these conditions include sleep disorders, depression, and dysthymic disorder. It is therefore essential for the medical professional to run tests that will help in ruling out such disorders to ensure that the treatment measures put in place are for the condition a patient is having.
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A Withdrawn Personality

A Withdrawn Personality


Introduction
The child was suffering from a withdrawn personality disorder, a personality disorder of cluster C personality disorder. People suffering from this disorder usually have social inhibition, feels inferior, and are usually very sensate to negative evaluation and have social anxiety (Krueger et al., 2016). The patients are usually afraid of interacting unless they are sure that the people they are to interact with will like them since they are afraid of being rejected or humiliated (Krueger et al., 2016). A withdrawn personality disorder is caused by genetic factors that give the patient a genetic predisposition, social factors where the childhood emotions are neglected or peer rejection and psychological factors (Renneberg et al., 2016). Researchers have also suggested that a combination of adverse childhood experiences and high sensory processing sensitivity also increase the chances of one suffering from this disorder (Krueger et al., 2016).

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Symptoms
The most common signs that were present with the child was that he was so preoccupied with his own shortcoming and formed relationships with people who he was sure will not reject him. The child preferred to play and do any kind of work alone as he was anxious and afraid of being embarrassed (Renneberg et al., 2016). The child had a strong desire to relate with other people but could not as he is afraid of being rejected. He avoided getting involved with people unless he was sure that those people will like him as he feared rejection. The child was also afraid of getting involved in new activities as they may lead to embarrassment (Davis et al., 2015).
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Schizoid personality disorders

Schizoid personality disorders


Schizoid personality disorders
A schizoid personality disorder is categorized in the group of eccentric personality disorder. People suffering from this disorder often appear peculiar. They are usually detached, distant and indifferent to social relationships (Bates, 2015). They prefer to spend most of their time alone and hardly express their emotions. People with this disorder are able to function well despite that they prefer taking jobs which they spend most of their time alone such as night security officers. Usually, this disorder begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. People with this disorder also have poor coping skills.

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It is difficult to assess the predominance of schizoid personality disorder because the patients hardly search out for treatment. However, the schizoid disorder is more common in men than in women. It is even more common in people having close relatives with schizophrenia (Bates, 2015). A schizoid personality disorder can be caused by the environment whereby emotions and warmth were absent in the childhood or caused by genetic thus being inherited. The common symptom of this disorder is that the patients avoid contact with other people to an extent of continuing to live with their parents even after there are adults and even avoiding marrying. Other symptoms are that they daydream, have no close friends, have happiness in few activities such as sex, find it difficult to relate with others, often show little emotions and choose jobs that they will hardly interact with other people (Bates, 2015).
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Supportive and Interpersonal Psychotherapies

Supportive and Interpersonal Psychotherapies


Supportive and Interpersonal Psychotherapies
Psychotherapy encompasses the use of psychological approaches to help individuals in changing and overcoming problems in desired ways. It aims at improving an individual's mental health as well as the general well-being, resolving troublesome behavioral traits, beliefs, and compulsions. Additionally, psychotherapy aims at improving relationships and social skills (Wampold and Imel, 2015). Over the years, certain psychological approaches have been considered evidence-based during the treatment of diagnosed diseases and mental disorders. In specific, supportive and interpersonal psychotherapies are two significant approaches that have over the decade, portrayed various similarities and differences.

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Supportive psychotherapy incorporates cognitive-oriented and psychodynamic models. In this respect, therapists aim at reinforcing patient health as well as viable adaptive recovery patterns in order to reduce conflicting intrapsychic (Werman, 2014). On the other hand, interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited approach, with a duration of 12-16 weeks, which aims at resolving interpersonal problems by employing viable symptomatic recovery programs.

According to Prochaska and Norcross (2018), there are evident similarities between supportive and interpersonal psychotherapies. First, the two approaches focus on changing current behavioral patterns among individuals. Secondly, they emphasize on understanding patient's past issues and health performance. In this respect, the two approaches aim at combining evidenced change behaviors and motivations. Thirdly, supportive and interpersonal psychotherapies provide a working alliance between therapists and patients.
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Case Study: Pakistani Woman With Delusional Thought Processes

Case Study: Pakistani Woman With Delusional Thought Processes


Introduction
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by an abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize reality. Some of its common symptoms comprise wrong beliefs, uncertain or confused thinking, hearing voices that others fail to hear, decreased social engagement, and emotional expression, and a lack of stimulus (Konradi & Heckers, 2003). Kay, Fiszbein, and Opler (1987) report others symptoms of this ailments to be delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts. Many patients may also resist treatment arguing that nothing is wrong with them. In this case, the patient under study at one point went out of control and later diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type, with the main focus being making three decisions regarding her medication.

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Decision Point One
Selected Decision
Start Zyprexa (olanzapine) 10 mg po orally at BEDTIME
Reason for Selection
The patient was diagnosed with Schizophrenia, paranoid type. Earlier on she had been diagnosed with brief psychotic disorder since her symptoms had only persisted for less than month. Olanzapine is normally used to treat mental and mood disorders like schizophrenia according to Laursen, Munk-Olsen, and Vestergaard (2012). Zyprexa medication could be so effective for decreasing hallucinations and helping a patient think more clearly and positively about herself, feel less disturbed, and take a more active role in day-to-day life.

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Case Study: Diagnosis and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Case Study: Diagnosis and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder


Introduction
It is normal to experience anxiety from time to time in life especially when one is stressed. However, excessive and persistent worry and anxiety can be challenging to control and affect the day day-to-day activities. Excessive and prolonged anxiety can a sign of a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by excessive and persistent worry about many different things. Individuals with GAD may antedate calamities and seem to be much concerned about work, family, health, money, and other issues. Baer (2015) states that people with GAD have a challenge in a controlling their worry.

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They are much worried about actual events or may anticipate the worst even when there is seeming reason for concern. GAD has symptoms similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and other forms of anxiety although they are all different conditions. Like diabetes and heart disease, anxiety disorders are complex and result from a combination of developmental, behavioral, genetic and other factors (Gerbarg & Brown, 2017). GAD can be treated using specific types of psychotherapy and drugs based on the preference of the patient and physician. This paper seeks to explore treatment case for a 46-year old male patient diagnosed with GAD. Besides the paper discusses some treatment decisions which will be put into consideration and their rationalization in the treatment of GAD as well as factors that can affect the patient’s pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic decision.
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Case Study: Severe Depression

Case Study:Severe Depression


Introduction
US Hispanics form the largest minority group in the country. Studies reveal that they face inconsistencies in the recognition and treatment of major depression (Roberto et al., 2005). Severe depression is the mental problem that is commonly diagnosed by primary care physicians. Moreover, the risk of severe depression is high among US-born Mexican Americans (Ring & Marquis, 1991). However, further studies indicate that Mexican immigrants have a significantly lower rate of severe depression compared to US-born Mexican Americans. The reason for this observation is that the immigrants experience less deprivation than US-born Hispanics. Likewise, according to Burnam, Hough, Escobar et al. (1987), they maintain a stronger family alignment which protects them from depression. This paper considers the case of a 32-year-old Hispanic American male who with severe depression and the treatment options available. The decision alternatives are considered to select the best option with the least exposure.

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Decision Point One
Selected Decision
Begin Zoloft 25 mg orally daily
Reason for Selection
Zoloft and Prozac are some of the most powerful prescriptions utilized to treat depression and other mental issues (Montgomery & Asberg, 1979). Zoloft is sertraline hydrochloride and is a good recommendation since it is linked with improving sleep, energy, and appetite (Stahl, 2014b). The 32-year-old Hispanic American male in this case suffers from insomnia, has lost interest in physical activities leading to gaining weight, avoiding socializing with others, and back pains. Zoloft also can aid with losing weight which this client also required having gained 15 pounds in the last 2 months. Prozac is attributed to many severe side effects hence Zoloft was the best option for this client.
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