pathophysiology

Pathophysiology


Pathophysiology

Urticaria is also known as hives. The condition is characterized by an outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps on the skin. It usually occurs suddenly; it results from either body reaction to specific allergens. An allergen refers to something which produces an allergic reaction to the body.
In most cases, the allergic reaction in human bodies, when an allergic reaction occurs, it releases histamine which accumulates in the blood vessels known as leak fluid. This then causes a rash on the human body.

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Cellular mechanism of urticaria

The skin lesions which are caused by the hives are usually raised red and itchy bumps. In most cases, the reaction begins itchy cutaneous mast cells and the basophils releasing the histamine and many other inflammatory mediators on the skin surface. When the response occurs, the mast cells are stimulated to release the chemicals known as Immunoglobulin E, which binds to any of the allergens to fight against any foreign component in the body. In addition, the histamine triggers the dilation of the blood vessels causing the skin to become reddish. This type of dilation later becomes leaky and releases the fluids which cause swelling of the skin or edema of the skin. Therefore, making the skin to remain to release excess fluids by the surrounding cells thus swelling (Maurer, et al., 2017).


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Leadership in Nursing

Leadership in Nursing


Leadership in Nursing

Leadership is all about believing and respecting human dignity. Great nurse leaders are listeners, encouragers, inspires, and also uploads a rewarding culture (Curtis, de Vries & Sheerin, 2011). In my course of a nursing career, where I observed changes in the working environment, I was given a gift of an advisor or a mentor who taught me how to make a difference. Phyl Donnelly has a passion for a nurse practitioner profession and always has her eyes set for something bigger for the nursing practitioners. She stands to a significant role model I admire as she has excellent leadership skills, and this is after interacting and working with many managers and directors. Considering that the importance of good leadership remains constant in the field of health care, she has created change and build the clinical nursing profession.

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Community Project

Community Project


Introduction


Healthcare proxies are extremely important. It is recommended for anyone over the age of 18 to have at least one if not two healthcare proxies, one healthcare agent and an alternative proxy identified. Many people do not understand what the point is of a health care proxy along why it is important to have one identified and documented. There are also a handful of people who do not understand the difference between a living will, healthcare proxy, an invoked healthcare proxy and an advance directive. My goal for this project is to promote education to other field clinicians so they will be able to review with patients the importance of having a healthcare proxy and the importance of having it documented.

Working in homecare in the city of Brockton we serve a very diverse community along with a various range of cultures. My goal is to have 80 percent of a designated sample size of patients that currently right now do not have a healthcare proxy to have one documented in the EMR by the end of this project. I plan on doing small in-services with each team along with providing the clinicians with a handout and creating a frequently asked question booklet so clinicians can give to patients when educating them and their families the strong importance.

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My preceptor will also assist and guide me to the right direction. She has worked in the homecare industry for 20+ years. She is will versed in how skilled nursing, and physical therapy visits and patient relationships. She will assist me in providing staff with the right information along with correct statistics. I look forward to reaching my goal of 80% of sample size to have a healthcare proxy. If this is a success, I plan on continuing this project in the future.

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Stage 5 Kidney Disease

Stage 5 Kidney Disease


Introduction

The prime purpose of the kidney is to filter excess water and waste from the blood as urine. This function is lost gradually when one is diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. The end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of the chronic kidney disease, meaning that the kidneys will no longer function adequately to meet the daily needs of the body. The kidneys of individuals with ESRD function below ten percent of their average ability. For the kidney disease to reach the end stage, it takes ten twenty years after diagnoses depending on how well it is managed (Rahbari‐Oskoui & O'Neill, 2017). The progression of the chronic kidney disease is measured using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When GFR falls below fifteen, more than 90 percent of the kidney functions are gone, thus failing to work sufficiently to keep the person alive. The quality of life for patients with kidney disease continues to depreciate even with the advancing technology and science of medicine. The world continues to suffer significant mortality and morbidity despite improvements in the quality of dialysis (Wagner & Fink, 2017). The current statistics released by the American Society of Nephrology indicate that the mortality rate of those diagnosed with ESRD is at 8 percent per year with the leading cause of death being cardiovascular diseases at 22 percent and other infections at 45 percent.

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Women’s Health Initiative: Article Review

Women’s Health Initiative: Article Review


The Description of Selected Disorder from the Women’s Health Initiative Study

Cardiovascular arteriosclerosis disorder occurs whenever the arteries become thick and rigid as well as limits blood flow to body tissues and organs. It is a gradual process that hardness the arteries as well as making them weak, along with developing in different organs, most typically the heart (Fishbein & Fishbein, 2015). The disorder has been associated with road traffic and air pollution with an increased development into atherosclerosis. Fishbein and Fishbein (2015) emphasise that the disorder can lead to life-threatening internal hemorrhage aneurysms, strokes, chronic kidney disorders, legs and arms poor circulation problems, as well as coronary artery diseases. The signs and symptoms associated as with this disorder as it progresses include angina, hypertension, kidney failure, temporary one eye vision loss, slurred speech, along with leg and arm numbness.

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Following Fishbein and Fishbein (2015), the risk factors that could contribute to this disorder include a family history of individuals with cardiac diseases. Timely diagnosis is fundamental for managing this condition appropriately through a physician performing a physical examination and asking the patient’s medical history. Typically diagnostic procedures take account of blood tests, electrocardiogram, CT scanning, ankle-brachial index testing, ultrasound, and stress testing. The condition’s prognosis is useful when the disease is treated early in combination with healthy lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The condition’s treatment, in addition to recovery, embraces regular cholesterol medications to regulate the situation, regular exercises, as well as having a healthy diet.


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