Rise Of Christianity Essay

 

The Rise of Christianity (2 paragraphs). Who did the followers of Jesus of Nazareth believe him to be? What principles of Christianity may have contributed to its success? Why were the early Christians persecuted by the Roman Empire?

The followers of Jesus regarded him as the anointed son of King David. The gospel of Matthew recounts several records of different people referring to Jesus as the Son of David. The genealogy of Matthew 1 also verifies his lineage as a descendant of David ("GotQuestions.org," 2020"). Christianity became successful mainly because of its religious appeal. Christianity brought a strong moral structure to the world. Jesus himself had a high sense of morality and embodied integrity. He was the source of morality and righteousness.

However, some scholars believed that a lot of people were drawn to Christianity because of the way the church took care of the sick and poor in the community ("Morison, 2014). Emperor Nero first persecuted Christians in 64AD. The persecutions were mainly based on accusations and rumors rather than factual information. Historical literature points to Christian's refusal to sacrifice and worship Roman gods and emperor as the main reason for their persecution. Secondly, Christians were accused of cannibalism, incest, and conducting strange rituals, which would lead to prosecutions and death (Rockliffe, 2011). 

The Spread of Christianity (two paragraphs). In what way could Christianity be said to be a “missionary” faith? How the early Christian “church” organized and what was were its two most important sacraments?

Christianity is referred to as a missionary faith because it spread to the gentile world by missionaries. Missionaries initiated believers into the religion, and most converts learned of the religion from the missionaries.

The first churches were plain and simple. People gathered in people’s private homes to listen to scriptures, worship God, pray, and commemorate biblical events. Later, a more formal organization was established. The pope acted as the supreme leader of the church (Hays, 2018). Bishops were second in the hierarchy and were assigned the power to ordain, control, and oversee dioceses. Dioceses consisted of many churches in a given area. The cathedral, which was made of clergy members, followed the dioceses in the hierarchy. The church’s organization was based on the belief that Jesus bequeathed priestly authority to male apostles that saw him after the resurrection. The apostolic positions were succeeded by the lineage of Jesus’ inner circle of disciples (Hays, 2018)


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The two most important sacraments of the early church were baptism and communion (Hays, 2018). Baptism was attributed to blessing, the forgiveness of sins, restoration, and acceptance of the Holy Spirit. The practice involved water, which symbolized life in the ancient world. The communion, on the other hand, refers to Christians sharing a “meal”. Jesus initiated the communion during the last supper. Communion involves sharing bread and wine, which symbolizes the body of Jesus Christ and blood, respectively. Priests were responsible for carrying out the holy sacraments in the early church (Hays, 2018).

The Fall of the Roman Empire (two paragraphs). What are the difficulties involved in explaining the fall of the Roman Empire? What explanation would you give?

The conundrum of why Roman fell has weathered a multitude of theories -over 210 theories have been made- and it still remains unsolved. Most of the theories lack evidence to support their claims. For example, the theory that Rome fell because of immorality and perverse sexual indulgence is baseless. Christianity had a powerful influence at the time leading up to the fall, and Romans had adopted it as their only religion (“History and Civilization,” 2019).

The best way to approach the cause of the fall is by evidence. There is considerable evidence on the events that led to the fall. I would explain the fall of the Roman Empire based on these events because they are grounded on facts. Historical data has demonstrated the economic, political, and population factors that led to the Roman downfall. The economic woes of the empire, political instability, and chaos, and the decline of the Roman population weakened the state (“History and Civilization,” 2019). To sum up, the direct causes of the Roman downfall are unclear, and some lack of supporting evidence. However, the events leading up to the cause can be used as the proxy for the causes.

References

  1. GotQuestions.org. (2020, January 22). What does it mean that Jesus is the son of David? Retrieved from https://www.gotquestions.org/Jesus-son-of-David.html
  2. Hays, J. (2018, September 16). Facts and Details: Early Christian churches, rituals and church structure. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat55/sub353/item1405.html
  3. History and Civilization. (2019).  The Fall of Rome: Facts and Fictions. Retrieved from http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320HistandCiv/chapters/08ROMFAL.htm
  4. Morison, J. H. (2014). Why did christianity succeed? - the great appeal | from Jesus to Christ | Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/why/appeal.html
  5. Rockliffe, S. L., (2011). Ancient History in depth: Christianity and the Roman Empire. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/christianityromanempire_article_01.shtml

Letter from Birmingham Jail

Text Author/Title: Martin Luther King, Jr./Letter from Birmingham Jail

Thesis:

Nonviolent disobedience is the best strategy to resist injustice everywhere.

Précis:

In the letter, King responds to clergymen’s criticism of the nonviolent protests in Birmingham. He begins the letter by acknowledging the clergymen’s concerns and refuting the claims that he is an outsider. King explains that he was invited to Birmingham to assist the African Americans in that city in fighting for their civil rights because of his status—an activist and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He reiterates that he felt compelled to accept the invitation by likening himself to Apostle Paul, who travelled far and wide, spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ. Furthermore, King explains a four-step nonviolent plan that was undertaken to rebut the critics’ argument that courts, not the streets, should be used to fight segregation laws. In addition to answering directly to the clergymen’s disapprovals, King also utilizes the letter to express his extreme disappointment at the leadership of white churches and white moderators. They should be spearheading racial equality, yet are more detrimental to that cause. Even without support from such influential figures, King closes the letter with the belief that African Americans will ultimately achieve equality and freedom.

Evaluation: 

King starts the letter by complimenting his critics to establish a tone of rational dialogue and goodwill. This technique is essential because it rubbishes the white authorities’ claims that protestors like King are extremist law-breakers. He then provides point-by-point rebuttal of the clergymen’s criticisms. In the process, King cites the acts of influential people of the past like Apostle Paul and Socrates to justify his presence in Birmingham and the need for nonviolent protests. He outlines that he is justified to advocate for freedom and equality in any part of America, just like Apostle Paul travelled to various regions of the world, spreading the gospel of Jesus. King taints his critics as freedom enemies by comparing the protestors to early Christians. Throughout the letter, King shows how the protestors are not at fault for seeking freedom and equality. Instead, the white community and his critics are to blame for encouraging racism and inequality.

New Vocab: 

Appall, precipitate, sanctimonious, gadfly, prod, unfettered.

 

References

Teaching Strategies Essay

Learning Strategies

 
Instructions: write a page about how i learn i took the test and is very accurate from my personality on the test i am reflective, sensing, visual, sequential and you will follow direction . reflective questions what learning style /styles did the questionnaire reflect? is this accurate? what do you understand about your learning style? what information have you gained that you didn’t know before? from a personal perspective, how does this knowledge impact the way you think, feel or act? how will this information be used as a nursing student?

Reflection on Learning Strategies

Reflecting during my times in primary studies, I can see myself as an excited fellow, conscientious, and avid type of learner guided by the knowledge of what is not known.  I was in love with the exploration of the world by utilizing my respective imagination, literature, and at the same time, through ensuring my hands being dirty. I also love questioning how things are working through the interrogation and causing a disturbance on what appears to be very complicated types of systems such as garage doors, fountains, or any aspect with buttons.  Often it is acknowledged that kids are ever born with very curious minds. I have faith that curiosity constitutes the innate element of childhood, driving the process of learning. 

It was Jean Piaget who was responsible for pioneering this learning theory in the year 1954. The scholar argued that knowledge is acquired based on the experience and the ideas resulting from the interaction. Piaget came with the suggestion that learning happens as people are involved in the navigation and interaction with their respective environments. The world is formed from the collection of permanent cases of objects connected with the casual forms of affairs. Eventually, the self ends up being known towards itself, being true towards its relative action, and at last discovering itself as the cause behind other causes, including being the object similar to other objects. Hence, I also have faith; it is indeed through the interaction between the environment and the subject that is crucial for the learning process.  

Finally, I have confidence that learning for sure entails seeking to know more by questioning, carrying tests on ideas, and seeking answers. Hence, my argument is that the interaction process, together with questioning the surrounding, forms part of the strategies of learning, especially to a nursing student.

 How can sequential learners help themselves? 

Research paper about trauma

 

Trauma

Definition

Trauma, according to the definition given by Onderko, is the emotional type of response where an individual has towards a negative kind of event that is very much extreme. Though trauma is a reaction that is seen as just a normal way of reacting to a horrible type of event by PsychGuides, on the other hand, its effects may prove to be very severe. Such effects may include interference to the ability of an individual to lead a normal lifestyle. In a situation of this nature, assistance may be required in treating stress and the dysfunction brought by the traumatic type of event. In the end, it will result in the restoration of the person to his or her normal emotional condition of well-being.

Major sources of trauma

Trauma may be a result of a more negative type of event that leads to a prolonged effect on the mental and emotional status of an individual (Garland 49).  Though various sources linked with trauma are often violent, other cases are psychologically oriented. Notable familiar sources behind trauma are;

v  Rape

v  Cases of domestic forms of violence

v  Natural forms of disasters

v  Severe injury or sickness

v  The loss of a loved family member

v  Witnessing actions related to violence

Onderko emphasized that trauma is always, though not often, related to its presence within the trauma accelerating event. Similarly, it is possible to contain trauma upon observing something at a far distance. Younger children, as pointed out by PsychGuides, especially those who are susceptive towards trauma, require psychological assessment following the occurrence of an event deemed traumatic so that their respective emotional well-being is restored.

Signs, Symptoms, and Effects

Signs

Though the signs and the symptoms linked with trauma are many, Van der Kolk (401) said that the primary signs might be listed. Persons who have been tolerant of the traumatic scenarios will appear shaken and disoriented too. At times they may register failures in responding to the conversation they way they are expected. Similarly, they may suffer from cases of withdrawal or, at times, never present when in the discussion.

The other telltale sign with trauma mentioned by Garland (p.53) is the anxiety. Anxiety as a result of trauma is capable of manifesting itself in problems associated with night based terrors, an instance of edginess, irritability, lack of concentration, and the scenario revolving on the mood swings. Despite that, these symptoms linked with trauma are familiar; on the other hand, they are never exhaustive. People tend to show responses to trauma in varied ways. At times, trauma may never be noticed even among the closest family and friends of the victim. At times, Onderko explained that these instances might necessitate for the value of engaging someone following the occurrence of a traumatic oriented event, even minus no cases related to the disturbance. Trauma may have its manifestation in days, months, or many years following the occurrence of the actual event. 

 Symptoms

Emotional symptoms

Emotion, according to Fast and Delphine (p.169), denotes one of the familiar ways that foster the manifestation of trauma. Notable emotional linked symptoms about trauma are anger, outbursts, denial, and anger. Trauma victims may exhibit overwhelming forms of emotions they show to other sources like members of the family or friends. Van der Kolk (403) justified this as part of the reasons behind trauma being difficult for the fellows who are loved too. Similarly, it is not very easy to assist an individual who is scaring you, though, with the awareness that the related emotional symptoms occur following a similar traumatic event may help in making the process becomes easy. 

 

Physical symptoms

Trauma tends to manifest both emotionally and physically. The familiar physical signs listed by Garland (p.64) linked with trauma are lethargy, lack of concentration, paleness, fatigue, and the heartbeat that is ever racing. The victim may show anxiety or panic attack mode as well as being in a position of not managing certain situations. On the same note, the physical symptoms associated with trauma may prove to be real and, at the same time, alarming the same way as those linked with the physical injury or cases of illness (Fast and Delphine 175). Hence, there is a need for exercising care during the management of the levels of stress following a traumatic event. 

Effects

Every effect linked with trauma may occur for a shorter or a longer duration of time that may span from weeks up to even several years. Onderko advised that any effect associated with trauma must give an immediate response or tackling to manage it as early as possible to avoid its permanence.  The faster the handling of trauma, the best chance the victim will have regarding successful recovery.

Both longer and shorter durational effects associated with trauma may be the same. However, Cohen, Anthony and Esther (p.56) said that the longer effects are often very severe. Mood changes experienced within the short term are indeed expected besides also being following normal trauma. However, when the mood change prolongs into weeks, then the longer durational effects may take place. 

 Tests and diagnosis

Despite the presence of the online evaluations regarding trauma, a professional evaluation is the best way, as suggested by Van der Kolk (405), against the self form of assessment. The victim may exhibit biases in the way of seeing things. Meanwhile, a professional is ever objective and is always ready to compensate for the element of bias. 

Medications and side effects

Medication

Unlike other mental forms of disorders, Garland (p.76) said that trauma has induction from the experience or event. Hence its treatment may be realized by using certain medications. Not every trauma needs medication. However, the said medication may be of value in offering treatment to the symptoms linked with trauma like depression and anxiety. Thus, it is essential to incorporate the services of a professional in healthcare in determining the necessity of the medication.

The medical history will dictate the options in drug according, severity linked with symptoms, and psychology. Where there are cases of depression that are severe and experienced for long durations, then Van der Kolk (407) suggested for its treatment with anti-depressant drugs. According to the definition given Garland (p.89), clinical depression refers to any episode linked with depression that prolongs for at least three months. Several victims of trauma all suffer from anxiety and thus may be put under the anti-anxiety forms of medications.

 Side effects

The major factor to consider before beginning medications for the symptoms linked with trauma is the side effects associated with the intended medication. Yes, it is a fact that every medication has its side effects, and also the severity is dependent on the class of the drug and the body chemistry of the individual (Cohen, Anthony and Esther 87). A section of the side effects can be highly managed in comparison to others. Hence, the likely negative side effects must be evaluated against the possible benefits to the victim.

References

  1. Cohen, Judith A., Anthony P. Mannarino, and Esther Deblinger. Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Guilford Publications, 2016.

  2. Fast, Elizabeth, and Delphine Collin-Vézina. "Historical trauma, race-based trauma, and resilience of indigenous peoples: A literature review." First Peoples Child and Family Review 14.1 (2019): 166-181.

  3. Garland, Caroline. Understanding trauma: A psychoanalytical approach. Routledge, 2018.

  4. Onderko, Karen. "What Is Trauma? - Definition, Symptoms, Responses, Types and Therapy". Integrated Listening, 2019, https://integratedlistening.com/what-is-trauma/.

  5. PsychGuides. "Trauma Symptoms, Causes, And Effects - Psychguides.Com." Psychguides.Com, 2020, https://www.psychguides.com/trauma/. Accessed 27 Apr 2020.

  6. Van der Kolk, Bessel A. "Developmental trauma disorder: toward a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories." Psychiatric Annals 35.5 (2017): 401-408.

Misericordia Scholarship Essay

My name is  Jane I came to the United States when I was 14 years old. I am under the deferred action for childhood arrivals program. I am currently in college and face a lot of challenges clearing my bills. I need a scholarship that will help me complete my course. My life here in the United States of America is not easy, as I have to sacrifice to survive and continue with my education.  If I acquire this scholarship, it will help me reduce the financial stress that I am going through now. There are several reasons as to why I need this scholarship.

One of the reasons is that I come from a low-income family. In my family, I am the first one who has been able to get to college. My parents were not able to learn. I came to the USA so that I can be able to acquire a job and gain an education so that I can support my people. I have to balance school and helping my parents and family members. This scholarship will enable me to complete my studies and acquire a better job.

The other one is that I am a mother of two. Apart from my parents and siblings am also a mother of two. I have to balance my classwork and also attend to my children. The little money I have can not sustain my children and me. I have to attend to the basic needs of my children and also handle my college bills. This scholarship will help me reduce this financial burden. Being a mother of two, I have to ensure that I complete my education so that I can secure a better job and attend to all the needs of my children.

Another reason is that I have to attend to the needs of my children. Being a mother of two, I have to ensure that my children enjoy life as other healthy children. I do not want my children to undergo the same experience as mine. I need this scholarship so that I can complete my education. Acquire a good job, and my children will lead to a good life. My children motivate me to work hard and achieve my training.

Another reason is that I want to achieve my education goals. I want to complete my education and get a well-paying job. I am pursuing education because I have a purpose. I have to ensure that I complete my training so that I can achieve my dreams. I need this scholarship so that it can see me through my academic journey. It should help me so that I do not drop out of school. This scholarship will motivate me to work harder and get good grades.

Another reason is that I came to the USA to pursue education. I went to the USA as an immigrant with the sole purpose of acquiring knowledge and later on get a good job. I need this scholarship to sponsor me in my academic journey. Being an immigrant nobody knows me around here, and I depend on this scholarship. This scholarship will help me to clear my school fees.

The next point is my financial needs. As a human being, I need to eat, dress, and even transport. The little amount of cash I have cannot balance between my needs and my academics. The scholarship will help me with my school fees. The remaining amount of money will help to attend to my financial needs. This scholarship helps me meet my institutional needs. Being an immigrant, I need some extra amount of money for my living expenses.  

The next point is my family background. I come from a family where I am the only one who has gone to college. Since I have this rare opportunity, I have to utilize it. I require this scholarship to ensure that I complete my education. It will enable me to bring change in our family and also help other family members to acquire knowledge.

The next point is my immigration status. I came to the USA when I was only 14. My immigration status is the deferred action for childhood arrivals. It protected me from being deported as a child. It has also helped by sponsoring me partly through my academic journey. I have been wholly depending on DACA from the time I came. I need this scholarship to help me complete my college. It's difficult for me to find institutional support being an immigrant; I need this scholarship to support me. The deferred action for childhood arrivals has helped me in my academic life in several ways.

How DACA has helped me:

It has helped me in paying my tuition expenses. It is challenging to meet the cost of higher education because I am an undocumented student. Because of this am not eligible for federal financial aid, including Pell Grants which makes it difficult for me to finance my education. But because I have my social security number as a part of DACA, I can fill the free application for federal student aid. It enabled me to receive the expected family number. With this number, I was able to access institutional support at school.

It has also helped me acquire a job. DACA ensured that I got a work permit. This permit enabled me to acquire a job. This job reduced my financial pressure as I was able to earn some money. This amount of money was able to cater for my living expenses and my tuition.

DACA helped me to overcome psychological barriers to success. It helped me to overcome feelings of exclusion, anxiety brought about by the finance bills, and sense of isolation. DACA enabled me to integrate into their institutions and mainstream society.

DACA will also ensure that I quickly get a job. Once I graduate from college, it will ensure that I get a job that matches my academic credentials. DACA as assisted me in getting a valid work permit. It ensures that I have access to new job opportunities, and internships in my relevant field also help me with my primary goal of getting an excellent job.

DACA also ensured my temporary protection. I came to the United States as an immigrant, and I was only 14. It assures that I don't get deported. It, therefore, ensured that my stay was peaceful without any disturbance. It gave me a friendly environment to pursue my studies. DACA has seen me continue my education up to college.

Conclusion

I need this scholarship to help me achieve my academic dreams. As an immigrant, it is difficult for me to get money for my institutional expectations. I need to complete my education and acquire a good job that will see me support my family and children. I also want to change the status of my family, being the only one who has gone up to college. I also want to act as an example to other immigrants and motivates them if awarded this scholarship; it will boost my education.

 

 

References

Essay on Euthanasia in Nursing

 

Euthanasia

Introduction

Since the last decades of the twentieth century to the twenty-first decade, the discussion on morality and legality of euthanasia has remained a significant phenomenon. Euthanasia is a word derived from the Greek term “Euthanatos,” meaning “good death,” referring to the practice of a lifetime of a person to discharge pain and misery. Euthanasia is classified into three categories based on whether the individual gives a consent; voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary, which are further divided into passive and active variants (Fletcher 44). There is an increased population of the senior citizens because of the advancement in medical technology, with modern medicine helping to extend life. However, old age comes with its challenges such as illnesses that result in pain and suffering.

In most cases, with the consent of the victim, euthanasia is administered to end their suffering. Euthanasia is lawful in some nations such as the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium and illegal in many others. Euthanasia remains a controversial ethical issue across the world with different parties giving diverse presentations of the same. To make it even more disturbing, Belgium passed a bill that legalized child euthanasia making it the first country to legalize euthanasia across all age brackets (Keown 64). This is an explanatory research paper that seeks to demystify the legal and ethical arguments of euthanasia across the world.

Arguments for Euthanasia

It is argued that euthanasia would be useful to numerous people once it is legalized. However, others respond citing their insecurities; they argue that the disabled, terminally ill, and the elderly would feel threatened by the law. Euthanasia and other physician assisted many cultures and religions do not embrace death methods (Kim 364). The debate on euthanasia affects everyone across the board, thus attracting the numerous participants, including the general public, experts in ethics, health law, and physicians.

The Dutch Parliament legalized euthanasia in 2001 with the Euthanasia Act coming into effect to regulate the administration of a drug to end life. Terminally ill patients who are suffering are advised about this method, and some of them consider it by writing or giving informed consent to the medics and the family. Proponents argue that euthanasia acts like an insurance policy that no one will die in pain or agony (Radbruch 105). Legalizing euthanasia means that everyone will have the right to die a peaceful death with dignity than long-suffering that would later lead to death. The proponents argue that euthanasia should be legalized for three reasons mainly, including mitigating needless suffering and pain, realizing the autonomy of the patient and providing psychological reassurance to the patient.

The early examples of euthanasia include a case study of Jean, the first wife to Dereck Humphry. Mrs. Jean was suffering from incurable breast and bone cancer and in extreme pain. She asked her husband to administer euthanasia. Mr. Humphry mixed her coffee with a deadly remedy gotten from a consultant, and it took effect in less than an hour. Mr. Humphry understood that it was a crime to help her wife to die, but he argued that he could not deny her since he loved her. After publishing a book entitled “Jean’s Way” in which he described how he administered the drug. Many called him a murderer, but he defended himself, saying that he would befit the title if he did it without the wife’s consent.

From the above case, everyone has the authority to govern his or her life as they please without restrictions. If one chooses to quicken their death by requesting for a lethal drug, then their rights should not be infringed by stopping them (Paterson 56). Autonomy remains one of the essential western cultural values which requires protection. If a person asks for euthanasia, proponents argue that the individual expresses his or her choice or realizes their autonomy. Hence, a euthanasia request should be treated as part of a human’s freedom to design and determine how their lives should end (Keown 71). Asking for euthanasia means ending one’s life, in a prearranged manner without losing control. From this point of view, euthanasia can be  legalized since it protects and promotes autonomy.

Supporters of euthanasia deem it right to acknowledge patients’ rights, and to accord respect to the decisions they make of selecting euthanasia. It is an illustration of respect to the rights of self-determination and freedom of privacy. Refuting euthanasia is a way of forcing people to suffer for what they could otherwise avoid, which is cruel and against the dignity and human rights (Radbruch et al. 107). The primary objectives of health care providers when they are out of medical alternatives should be relieving the patient from suffering other than preserving their lives in suffering.

Argument Against Euthanasia

All the arguments in favor of legalizing euthanasia are compelling and weighty with numerous examples, but to most of the legislators, the issue of life and death is always tied to ethics and social values. The controversy over euthanasia remains intense with opponents treating it as a euphemism for murder. Opponents have maintained that euthanasia is not the right to die but the right to kill, which is against the laws of the land. The only professional obligations of healthcare providers are to promote health and prevents deaths caused by illnesses. Their code of conduct and ethics insists that health providers should not go against their role of nursing, healing, and caregiving, thus disregarding euthanasia (Kim 368). The society has no right to kill since medical science has advanced significantly, thus making alive the argument that those ill today have the chance of healing tomorrow.

Further opponents argue that no patient wants to die; that is why they seek medical help in the first place. Though the consent of the patient could be availed, opponents find it possible to coerce the patient emotionally and psychologically and have their permission; hence, medics should not rely on it. The family members too have the right over the patient; therefore, they should advise further. Euthanasia should not be presented as a right decision as receiving healthcare because most of the elderly patients would feel guilty for not choosing death (Paterson 73). Some patients would prefer euthanasia against their will because of the financial considerations where they feel burdensome among others. If the choice is not readily available, the individual would not consider it an option as seeking medical assistance.

Further, opponents consider euthanasia as suicide, which is not allowed by the law. Studies have indicated that the thought of dying or desire for committing suicide would evaporate if pain and depression are treated adequately. This illustrates that all patients have the right to proper health and management of their pain and struggle, which will kill the thought of euthanasia. Legislation that relates to euthanasia carries vague and ambiguous terms which allow the provision to look natural, but in the real sense, it is not. Opponents call for a proper explanation of the needs to administer lethal drugs or conduct euthanasia (Emanuel et al. 80). For instance, when the proponents speak about a terminally ill patient; both the legal and medical fraternity have a dispute about determining patients who are terminally ill.

The cultural and political forces behind the euthanasia debate have complicated it further by introducing new arguments. The Catholics, for instance, have fought for the rights of the unborn, dying and the poor. The Catholics have, for a long time, fought the growing acceptance of euthanasia in their quest to defend good morals. The foundational beliefs of people shift the attitudes towards euthanasia and death in general. Arguing against suicide, euthanasia, or death would generally mean supporting the deepest foundations of civilization and culture. The Catholics have sought to distinguish between means, ends, and motivations of conducting euthanasia and then adding the moral standing separately. First, it is essential to appreciate death as part of the human cycle which everyone eventually will get to (Fletcher 48). However, how death is achieved should be made as healthy as possible since it marks the end of life. A dying person in a hospital will die eventually whether the life support machines are withdrawn or not, but the processes involved are different. Each procedure carries its repercussions and diverse social side effects. When one burdensome withdrawal treatment it means that the patient will no longer receive medical treatment that could prolong his or her life (Paterson 69). However, in such a case, medical experts are expected to administer pain-relieving measures, comfort, and care until the patient dies.

The Catholics believe that, socially, morally, and spiritually, the use of medical technology, whether by withdrawal or administration means deliberately ending one’s life. Actively killing an individual should be charged in the courts of law and treated as other murder cases (Emanuel et al. 82). Catholics believe that the only acceptable means of a getting to a goal should be neutral. Instrumental reasoning and technological thinking obscure the differences in the methods and ends. When considering the moral outlook and standing of euthanasia, Catholics and many other beliefs argue that it is a selfish move, one that is conducted out of desperation (Kim 373). Euthanasia and suicide are considered to be motivated by real distress, but on the flip side, they are driven by selfish agendas such as money, hate, revenge, or desire to end the burden of taking care of the patient. All agents who participate in completing the lives of others through euthanasia have ascertained that during the deliberation, there are fluctuations of ever-changing moods, thoughts, and emotions (de Beaufort 1464). The despair that leads to the conscious thought of euthanasia reverses if the patient changes their mind; according to Catholics, means that the patient does not willingly call for euthanasia.

The Slippery Slope

Different parties have argued that if voluntary euthanasia is legalized, chances of conducting involuntary euthanasia will skyrocket. A slippery slope is a general form of argument which claims that if the society allows something relatively harmless today, the chances of having incredible results become acceptable are high (Emanuel et al. 85). The proponents of euthanasia argue that they advocate for euthanasia but with proper regulation and control mechanisms. They continue to say that a considerable difference exists between killing people who ask for it under certain circumstances and killing people in hospitals without permission. They point this out as a moral distinction which no medical practitioner would go against.

Opponents, on the other hand, claim that doctors can kill other patients to save on the healthcare cost. The practice is likely to be abused such that most patients will be forced to agree to euthanasia. The medical practitioners, too, can directly step into the shoes of the family or the patient by quickly administering lethal drugs then claim that the patient succumbed to their illness. The line between voluntary and involuntary will become more narrow if one is legalized. Opponents of euthanasia state that the moral grounds of people vary such that the moral standing of one could be irrelevant to the other (de Beaufort 1465). Doctors who continue to conduct euthanasia today with the knowledge that it is illegal, it means that if it were legalized, more patients would die in their hands.

Some societies and cultures reason that patients with disabilities look at things from a selfish perspective, thus viewing their disability as a disaster that is filling their lives with frustration and suffering. With that regard, they are likely to make decisions that only favor their selfish needs. The right to decide whether to have euthanasia administered to them should be vested upon them (Chambaere 1180). At the same time, no one has the right to determine whether an individual should die, thus leaving only one option of stopping euthanasia.

Conclusion

Despite this much input, euthanasia has remained illegal in most of the countries since suicide is against the law. Most people claim its illegality based on reasons such as euthanasia is murder; thus, it will result in more killing and destroying of a life. Euthanasia is a direct violation of the original oath of medicine, the Hippocratic oath, which states that medicine is meant to heal. It is thought to be unnecessary since technology and other medical advances in the medical profession, modern drugs and hospices have significantly increased. At the same time, arguments by various scholars such as John Hardwig, a philosopher, claimed that euthanasia could act as the only option if the burden of caring for the sick seriously compromises the lives of their loved ones. If a lot of focus is turned to the dying patient, the family may be converted to a place of grief, thus affecting the livelihood of the entire family. There is no law or ethical standards that call for a family or people to keep their dying member alive. It is considered a way of upholding the right to life by honoring the right to die. It is highly recommendable for the nation to legalize euthanasia and put stringent measures to it to ensure that it is conducted by qualified personnel under adequate circumstances. The healthcare personnel should undergo proper training of administering euthanasia to learn about ways of providing favorable conditions.

Future studies need to look into the pros and cons of legalizing euthanasia as a way of contributing further into the discussion. The pros and cons should be in respect to the nature of suffering, the sanctity of life, and both the religious and non-religious perspectives.

References

  1. Chambaere, Kenneth, et al. "Recent trends in euthanasia and other end-of-life practices in Belgium." New England Journal of Medicine 372.12 (2015): 1179-1181.
  2. de Beaufort, Inez D., and Suzanne van de Vathorst. "Dementia and assisted suicide and euthanasia." Journal of neurology 263.7 (2016): 1463-1467.
  3. Emanuel, Ezekiel J., et al. "Attitudes and practices of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe." Jama 316.1 (2016): 79-90.
  4. Fletcher, Joseph F. Morals and Medicine: the moral problems of the patient's right to know the truth, contraception, artificial insemination, sterilization, euthanasia. Princeton University Press, 2015.
  5. Keown, John. Euthanasia, ethics and public policy: an argument against legalisation. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
  6. Kim, Scott YH, Raymond G. De Vries, and John R. Peteet. "Euthanasia and assisted suicide of patients with psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands 2011 to 2014." JAMA psychiatry73.4 (2016): 362-368.
  7. Paterson, Craig. Assisted suicide and euthanasia: a natural law ethics approach. Routledge, 2017.
  8. Radbruch, Lukas, et al. "Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a white paper from the European Association for Palliative Care." Palliative medicine 30.2 (2016): 104-116.

Social Media Depression Essay

 

Social media and depression

Social media refers to various internet services which enable users to interact with one another easily.  The interaction can be verbally or visually. According to current research, over 90% of youths are active on social media. Getting to know the impacts of social media on adolescents has become one of the common topics of discuss  ion due to the increase in mental related health problems (Akkın Gürbüz, et al, 2017).  Many of the problems related to internet problems are described as an addiction.  However, some of the activities are described as abnormal activities.  For instance, those who like posting their images (selfish) can be regarded as narcissistic. Such behaviour has emerged as the social norm to many younger people on social media.

Social media can be regarded as a double-edged sword. This is because it has both negative and positive impacts on the users.  For example, the author highlights the benefits of enabling people to express their thoughts and feelings in receiving social support.  In addition, research as also indicated that there is a close link between social media use and the psychological problem.  System  atic research has indicated that measuring social media use and the symptoms in young people have shown a significant relationship. For instance, there are some symptoms which affect the young generations.

On the other hand, social support is one of the principal factors which influence the relationship between social media use and mental health. The author argues that social media has enabled adolescents to strengthen their bonds with the friends they make.  Therefore, it reduces social isolation and loneliness. Thus, it will indirectly improve the mental health of people.  In addition, studies have indicated that those people with low social support are more likely to suffer from depression as compared to those with high social support (Supawadee, 2019).  The author has also reviewed over 70 studies and found that inverse correlation mainly on supporting online interaction on social has caused more problems to young generations. The common problem mentioned by the author is depression.  However, some of the authors have indicated that the quality of social support may be more essential than quantity.

From the social comparison theory, many people tend to compare themselves to others to assess their opinion and abilities (Ward, Dill-Shackleford, & Mazurek, 2018).  For instance, such behaviour is common in adolescents as compared to young children and adults.  On the contrary, the impact of social media on mental health differs between the adolescents who normally engage in downward social comparison and those who usually use high performers as the references point. In addition, negative online interaction has effects on both depression and anxiety.  Similarly, it has also been found less use of facebook predicts the social comparison between the users, which in turn can lead to depression.

Furthermore, the link between social media and mental health is not straightforward at all, with various contributory reasons.  For example, impaired sleep is considered as a mechanism. In addition, internet use is sedentary behaviour, excess use of it leads to health problems such as anxiety and depression. In addition, this behaviour has a deleterious effect on the health of young people.  However, the direction of this is not clear at all (Saunders & Eaton, 2018). This is because people who are mentally challenged are supposed to be less physically active.  Multitasking is also a common character on social media.  For example, users have accounted for multiple platforms. This is a clear symptom of mental disorder such as depression. This is because a number of accounts in most cases correlates with the high level of anxiety due to one being overwhelmed by many demands.

Adolescents are considered as a period of personal and self-identity; much of the development is more reliant on social media.  Limited capacity and vulnerability to peer pressure, many of the youths cannot evade the adverse social effects.  Consequently, they become more at risk of developing mental disorders.  However, the evidence on social media influence development has remained at an early stage.  The current study has examined evidence that the influence of social media uses on depression.  In addition, the impact of social media use has increased the instances of depression and anxiety.  In this case, it is important to distinguish one from another.  It is true that the association between social media and mental problems.  Researchers have confirmed that the correlation between social media use and mental distress relate to one another.

From the author’s perception, social media correlates to mental disorders. Most of the youths are suffering from depression due to the excessive use of the internet. However, it is not clear on how it led to such problems. To be precise, internet use has both negative and positive effects on users. For example, social media has enabled adolescents to strengthen their bonds with the friends they make.  Therefore, it reduces social isolation and loneliness.  Therefore, it is clear that the use of the internet has led to depression and anxiety for young people. When it is well organized, it can be of great importance to the user. 

References

  1. Akk?n Gürbüz, H. G., Demir, T., Gökalp Özcan, B., Kadak, M. T., and Poyraz, B. Ç. (2017). Use of social network sites among depressed adolescents. Behaviour and Information Technology, 36(5), 517–523. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1262898
  2. Saunders, J. F., and Eaton, A. A. (2018). Snaps, Selfies, and Shares: How Three Popular Social Media Platforms Contribute to the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating Among Young Women. CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 21(6), 343–354. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0713
  3. Supawadee Charoenwanit. (2019). The Relationship of Cyber-bullying and Academic Achievement, General Health, and Depression in Adolescents in Thailand. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 16(4), 231–241. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=trueanddb=aphandAN=133759642andsite=ehost-live
  4. Ward, D. M., Dill-Shackleford, K. E., and Mazurek, M. O. (2018). Social Media Use and Happiness in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 21(3), 205–209. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0331
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