HUMN303N Discussions Week 2: Greek and Roman Architectural Influences

This week you will read and learn about architectural influences from Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. What are some of the main features of these architectural styles? Use examples from the text or the digital fieldtrip archives to help support your answer. Please remember to provide images and citations to help illustrate your points.

 Class, please choose at least one building in Washington, DC and discuss how it is a reflection of Greco-Roman architecture.

  •  The ancient Greek architects have given us some of the most uniquely built structures that have influenced the world even today. There are various public buildings even in the modern era that has benefitted from their contribution. Their designs started out to illustrate their capabilities in constructing amazing temples.

    As stated by Sayre, “The classical Greek orders became the basic design elements for architecture from ancient Greek times to the present day. A major source of their power is the sense of order, predictability, and proportion that they embody” (P.51). The Greek architecture is comprised of three distinct parts which are the platform, the column and the entablature (Sayre, 2013). “The platform is a raised horizontal surface, the column is the vertical part that provides support and the entablature is the upper portion that is comprised of 3 parts such as the cornice, frieze, and architrave” (Sayre, 2013 p.51). Together these units are referred to as the elevation order. They are known as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian (Sayre 2013).The difference between them is the shape of the columns and the décor it possesses (Sayre, 2013). The most famous example of the Doric order is The Parthenon. It was done in 432 BCE 15 years after initial construction started p. 60. Please see depiction below.


    These structures built, all possess distinct features referred to as columns, friezes, and pediments where their features are one of a kind design. (Sayre, 2013). In the Doric order, the bottom layer and the flat band located just above the Entablature substantial. The portion known as the Doric is the part of the column that is considered the largest part. As stated by Sayre, 2013 “The Doric is the heaviest of the columns. The Ionic is lighter and noticeably smaller. The Corinthian is smaller yet, seemingly supported by mere leaves” (p.51). These orders became to be known as the basic foundation used to construct buildings in the biggest cities today (Sayre, 2013).

    The Romans had great respect for the Greeks on their cultural achievement’s, philosophy and arts. (Sayre, 2013). They also had great respect for themselves and the artistic ways that made them different from the Greeks. The Romans adopted many of the architectural traditions established by the Greek but also developed their own style as well. They continued to build structures based on the classical order established by the Greeks and their favorite was the Corinthian. They were also considered pioneers who developed new ways to not only construct buildings but use new materials such as concrete (p.92) They combined existing techniques with newer designs to create new architectural structures such as the basilica. As stated by Sayre, (2013)“A basilica is a large, rectangular building with a rounded extension, called an apse, at one or both ends, and easy access in and out” (p.93). They also developed the triumphal arch, which is “composed of a simple barrel vault enclosed within a rectangle, and enlivened with sculpture and decorative engaged column. These structures would impact structures of the modern era such as renaissance cathedrals (p.94).  Another type built by the Romans is the ceremonial column. This particular structure is meant to illustrate “power and male virility”. Another most desired undertaking done by the Romans is the building of the Pantheon. “The Pantheon is a temple to “all the gods,” and sculptures representing all the Roman gods were set in recesses around its interior. The facade is a Roman temple, originally set on a high podium, with its eight massive Corinthian columns and deep portico, behind which are massive bronze doors” (p.95). The contributions made by both the Greeks and Romans continue to influence our culture today. 


    Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Great post. I found it to very informative on the structures and type of building process used. I have been fortunate to have visited both Athens and Rome recently. Pictures do neither place justice. In Greece the acropolis stands erect on top of elevated ground surrounded by theaters and other historical sites and battle grounds. This temple has been destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC and was rebuilt. Its current condition is not from aging but from a mortar attack by the Venetian Army. The Turks had occupied to Athens and were being attacked by the Venetians. The Turks had stored all their gun powder in the Acropolis and while being attacked had moved to the acropolis for shelter. The Turks believed that the Venetians knew they had stored their gunpowder there and thought that the Venetians would not attack. They were wrong, on September 26,1687 the Venetians bombarded the site and eventually hit the gunpowder leaving the Acropolis the way it stands today. While I was visiting this past summer there were cranes and other equipment on site. According to a tour guide they are slowly working on the structure to keep it from crumbling. In Rome the Pantheon reminds us of the Greek style of building on the outside but is Roman on the inside. Once again this is a work of art that needs to be seen in person. After seeing both places I am amazed at how big these structures were and the time periods they were built. The materials used and the detail in the creations. As grand as these two are they do not compare to the Colosseum. The Colosseum is the largest amphitheater ever built. While you are standing inside it is breath taking. Pictures do it no justice in its size and beauty. Great post! I enjoyed reading it. 

    •  Hi Jean,

      The Greco Roman blended version of architecture has given the human civilization some of the best historical monuments till date. The influence of Greece on the culture of Rome reflects in the architecture and art that had been depicted in the language, culture governing styles as well as the religion of Rome in the latter periods. The Byzantium empire around the Black Sea as well as the Mediterranean had constructed swimming pools and spas that are till date preserved as the best forms of architecture we humans ever saw.

       Hi Jean,

      You actually make some great points here in deed. Reading your discussion I felt like sharing a certain historical fact with you. Alexander , the great had appointed a Roman architect who was in charge of most of the ideal architectural construction of Rome in the contemporary times. His name was Parmenion and his first task of expertise was evidenced by Alexander when he built the building of Alexandria, and the renowned temple at Serapis. He was as well assisted by the Greek painter named Phidias in creating such fantastic historical buildings.

       Professor and Class,

      Greek architectural tradition began with the building of sanctuaries. The prominent features of Greek architecture are three vertical elements: platforms, columns and an entablature. Their relationship to one another forms what is called elevation’s order. Three types of elevation exist: the Doric. The Ionic and the Corinthian. The bottom layer of the entablature is usually decorated with sculpture, painting or moldings.

      When the Romans conquered the Greeks, they were impressed with the ornate architecture of the Greeks. It is normal that that Roman architecture bears influences of Greek architecture and this week’s lesson tells us it also Etruscan inspiration. Where Greek city states were characterized by sanctuaries, Roman cities are characterized by forum.  One important Roman invention is the concrete. The week two lesson reminds us that ‘concrete serve as the foundations and supporting structures’. The goal of Roman architecture was to express the grandeur of Rome while improving the life of the citizens. To that end [and without going into city planning] some the prominent features of Roman architectures are arches, domes and vaults. The Romans married arches and columns in a triumphal manner.

      Both Greek and Roman architecture influences can be in Europe and the Americas.



      1. Sayre, H. (2013) Discovering the Humanities 2nd Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson
      2. Chamberlain University, online learning. Humanities 303. Lesson; Greco-Roman Influences, wk. 2.

        Barbara, I did not know the Romans invented concrete until this week. We can clearly see that Roman contribution everywhere today. I like that you included that concrete serves as the foundation. We still use concrete as housing foundations, but now we are reinforcing the concrete with metal bars as an improvement. The evolution of concrete has been helpful to architecture and buildings of today.  

        Sayre, H. (2013) Discovering the Humanities 2nd Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson

         Hi, Barbara

        Great way to summarize this week’s lesson and readings!  As we learned there are differences between the Roman and Greek structures as per their culture and background. After reviewing both types of architecture, do you feel the monuments in Washington D.C. resemble the Roman or Greek layout more?  Also, do you feel that the two sanctuaries still standing in Italy today are in such good shape because of the columns and architectural design?

        -Megan Lesniak

        Hi Megan,

        • Both Hellenic and Roman architectural influences are evident in the monuments in Washington D.C. So, it depends on what monument one is looking at. Take the Lincoln Memorial for example is more hellenic in style, whereas the Jefferson Memorial is more like the Pantheon in Rome.

          I am not what you are referring to as "two sanctuaries still standing in Italy". In my post I was contrasting  Greek and Roman city planning. Greek city planning was characterized by building sanctuaries as meeting place whereas Roman focussed on forum/fora as meeting place.

          Yes columns based architectural design give longevity to building structures.

           Hello Barbra,

          I am learning so much in the brief time since we have started this class. I did not know that the Roman's invented concrete. It is amazing that the strength of their invention has allowed their structures to really stand the test of time. Some have been through natural disasters such as earthquakes and even military invasion. Our text mentions that the Romans have been using concrete in their buildings since the second century BCE. It was made from a mixture of volcanic aggregate and was stronger than any other building material at that time and set quickly.

          Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

          Hi Barbara,

          The Greeks and the Romans have influence our art, architecture even our politics. Their contributions have affected every aspect of our lives. When we think about going on trips we often go to big cities and see structures that are built in the grandest forms. These structures are reminiscent of the old temples built by the Romans and Greeks. As mentioned by DeVry University (2018), “The influence of Roman architecture can be seen throughout America. Many courthouses, especially the U.S. Supreme Court building, are reminiscent of Roman temples. Completed in 1935 and designed by Cass Gilbert, the Supreme Court building is raised in a podium and approached from a front staircase with freestanding columns only in the front of the structure” (para 2).


          DeVry University (2018). Week 2, Greco-Roman Influences (online lesson). Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group. Retrieved from:

          Hi Barbara,

          I found your post to be extremely informative and detailed. I have not had the chance to read chapter 2 to its entirety. I did not know that the concrete was a Roman invention. This class just started and already I have found that many thing that we use today including democracy and concrete initially took place in the ancient Rome and Greek times. I love how the Romans took their own ideas and married them with the ideas of ancient Greece and created some of the most beautiful architectures that we see today.


             I too did not know that the Romans were credited with inventing concrete.  To think about how one material was able to shift and change the world of architecture and the modern world.  Things like arches and more intricate designs were able to be erected with this material.  There has also been studies done to learn from the Romans concrete has stood the test of time.  Jenkins (2017) looked at how the composition of concrete differed between now and then and how the Romans use of volcanic ash, along with the reaction that was made with the sea water, created mortar to develop between the cracks of the concrete sea walls.  This reaction was due to the minerals mixture of silica oxides and lime.  Additional studies are being conducted to see how we can better model our concrete off the Romans. 


          Jenkins, A. (2017). Scientists Have Figured Out How Ancient Rome's Concrete Has Survived 2,000 Years. Time.Com, 62.

          Professor and Classmates,

          Thanks, due to the "reflections" project, I now have my eyes a little more opened to Greco-Roman influences in architecture in today's times. These influences (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian Greek orders) can be found throughout our U.S Capitol Hill. Buildings including the U.S. Capitol, the Supreme Court Building, and others. I knew that they were Greek-inspired, but now knowing a little more of the different styles, I can now work on identifying which time period they were influenced during. The Old Senate Chamber, located in the U.S. Capitol Building, "is a two-story room modeled after the amphitheaters of antiquity. Eight Ionic columns of variegated marble quarried along the Potomac River" (Architect of the Capitol). In Ancient Greek times, the marble used was often a white marble. It all depends on where the marble is quarried. It is very hard for me to believe that people do not believe in a God. I'm sorry, but how amazing it is to have such varied beautiful earth materials available to us. Materials that are not the same and indigenous to different places. How blessed are we to be able to use these materials. Materials that stand the test of time and people that have the ability to quarry them and build upon them. This causes me to feel awe-inspired.


          Architect of the Capitol, Ionic columns. Retrieved from

            •  Hi Ruth,

              You are right that the Old Senate Chamber has both Grecian and Roman influences which can be seen in the lay-out or floor plan: an amphitheater lay-out inspired from Roman architecture and Iconic, Corinthian

              Columns of the chamber are inspired from Grecian architecture.


              1. Sayre, H. (2013) Discovering the Humanities 2nd Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson

                Hi Ruth,

                I share your same sentiment. When we look at these beautiful buildings, whether in the U.S or ancient Rome or Greece, how can we not believe in God. Not only did he create these beautiful materials but he gave us the vision to be able to use it in a way that is just breathtaking. I personally find marbles to be exquisite.

                Professor and Class,

                Influences of culture from ancient Rome and Greece include that of the Capital Buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington D.C. The main features of the architectural style are that of neoclassical. This building was inspired by the Roman-Greek revival. The use of tall columns with different shapes, triangular and symmetrical and the domed roof top takes on the look of an ancient Roman temple.  When the Capitol was under construction to make it larger Georgia marble was used on the exterior instead of sandstone to make it sturdier so it would not deteriorate. During the War of 1812 the Capitol building was sent on fire by British troops. So during the reconstruction it was also fire proofed with the use of cast iron when construction of a a new dome to make it more proportioned to the new wings that were added. Today the Capitol building is 175,170 square feet with the floor the size of 16.5 acres (n.p.s. ,gov, n.d.). The Pantheon of Rome also has cylindrical or spherical shaped dome top which is said to be 144 feet in diameter. This is the largest in Europe since the 20th century. This was said to be the temple of all gods with Roman sculptures engraved in the interior walls (Sayre,2103). The Pantheon has scriptures using raised bronze lettering that was an abbreviated type of Latin . It was a portico with tall columns with circular halls. It was decorated with statues of gods. The dome was divided into 28 sections with the  equal amount of columns. 28 is one of the 4 perfect numbers that were used , known in antiquity. They were seen as mystical and religious and were  seen as being connected with the cosmos(Ranogagic,2015).

                Jill Robbins

                n.p.s. gov., n.d.. Washington D.C. US Capitol. Retrieved from

                Ranogagic, Paul M.D. ,2015. The Pantheon. Smart History. Retrieved from

                Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

                Hello Jill,

                I really enjoyed reading your post. You included some great information on the Capital Building on Capital Hill and how they compare to Rome and Greece architecture. I have not had a chance to go to Washington, DC to visit these great buildings but I plan to go there soon. The Pantheon of Rome sounds very interesting and impressive too. When trying to build something beautiful, Roman architecture is the way to go.


                Hi, Jill

                Very interesting that Georgia marble was used for the Capitol!  As we have learned, marble was used in the creation of Roman-Greek temples.  Because cast iron was utilized in reconstruction, do you feel that the infrastructure of the Capitol is stronger?  I feel using cast iron to fireproof was a smart idea because of protecting the President and other confidential government files.  Also, due to the size of the White House, cast iron will help to maintain a strong structure.

                -Megan Lesniak

                 Good Morning Professor and Class,

                According to our week two lectures, the influence of Roman architecture can be seen throughout America. Many courthouses, especially the U.S. Supreme Court building, are reminiscent of Roman temples. Completed in 1935 and designed by Cass Gilbert, the Supreme Court building is raised in a podium and approached from a front staircase with freestanding columns only in the front of the structure. The outer surface of the building is comprised of white marble chosen to mirror the power of the architecture of the Romans and Greeks. It is no surprise that American courthouses echo Roman temples, because the roots of the American legal system stem from Roman law, and Latin is still the language of the law today.

                Pierre Charles L’Enfant, who was commissioned in 1791 by George Washington to design the capital city, used Roman planning as the basis for the design. The Mall, with its axial design that leads from the Capitol building to the Lincoln Memorial, is based on Roman fora.


                Lincoln Memori


HUMN303N Week 1: Ancient Works of Art

 Choose a work of art from the reading in Chapter 1. Discuss how the work is a reflection of the ancient culture that created it. Also, did anything particularly surprise or impress you about the work of art or the ancient people who created it?
Professor and Class, 
  • Looking at art from chapter 1 I am amazed at the painting at Chauvet, a 6 foot painting on limestone from 30,000 BCE, in a time before art supplies as we know them today were available they created a beautiful masterpiece. In Chauvet the paintings are believed to have a sacred meaning, and although the pattern of colors used to paint change as you go deeper within the caves there is no known reason as to why, showing us so long ago they had such creative minds and a rich history in values and beliefs. I am absolutely amazed by this painting, it is beautiful and yet now when we have so many resources available to teach and help you draw I can barley draw a stick figure, their artistic abilities amaze me. I am also surprised to read that in Chauvet many animals that were painted were not hunted as other cultures have done, leading me to believe they truly had such a respect and understanding of nature.


    Sayre, H. M. (08/2012). Discovering the Humanities, 2/e VitalSource for DeVry University. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from

    Hello Katie,

    I am also amazed by the creativity exhibited in the paintings. I also find it surprising that many of the animals painted were not hunted. I agree that they could have been painted out of respect for the animals and nature. Maybe they appreciated the beauty that surrounded them. I enjoyed reading your post. I must admit that I have very little artistic ability. 

    Melissa Gilliland 

     Hi Katie,

    Discovered as late as 1994, the Chauvet cave art is one of the most famous pre-historic rock art. I am, particularly, impressed that art as old as 30,000 BCE could exhibit such aesthetic quality. The fact that this cave painting was executed so skillfully and as far back in pre-history forces us to abandon the view that early art was nativist, but a masterpiece as you referred to. Excellent post!



    1. Exploring our past informing our future: Retrieved from
     Hello Katie, 

    The painting at Chauvet that you have discussed about here is a wonder and I completely agree with your discussion on the point that the resources required for creation of art back in those days were not so easily available. In this regards I would like to share a certain fact with you that in the earlier ages people used to make colors out of vegetable peels, fish oil and other such naturally available agents. These colors were not only more durable but at the same time were better in quality than the artificial colors that are created today.

     Hi Katie,

    I agree with you that Chauvet paintings had such creative minds and a rich history in values and beliefs. It does seem as though they were trying to document their stories of life. They were thinking ahead of the future generations obviously, to leave behind documentation of such meaningful events. To us it is art, but to them, I'm sure it was just like a history book. It gives us just a peek into what life was like for them.

    Gang Zhang

     Hi Katie,

    You bring up some really good points. In todays's time, we can easily walk inside an art supply store and get supplies for whatever we need. Way back in those times, that was not the case. Despite that fact, they created the most beautiful work of art and are still priceless today. These artists found ways to paint and cult their emotions with what they had on hand and it came out perfect. 


    Thank you so much for your input! I love your information on how "paint" was created by using vegetable peels and fish oils. I found some information online about how historic cave paintings were created and again I am absolutely fascinated by the creative mindset of these people. Using sea shells as holders for their paint, and knowing clay was available in different colors, such as red yellow and brown, as well as charcoal for black it gave them the ability to create these works of art with even more dimension. The information I found also spoke about how they would use their fingers to paint, and eventually began using animal hair to create pain brushes, and hollow bones as a form of spray paint. Their creativity and ingenuity was very impressive. 


    Encyclopedia of stone age art (N.D.), Stone Age Cave Painting, Prehistory Characteristics, Origins, History, Types, Retrieved from:

     Hello, professor and class,

         The statue of Menkaura with a woman introduced in Chapter one is a stunning artwork. It was created in the Old Kingdom of Egypt dated from 4th-6th Dynasties of Egypt. The Old Kingdom of Egypt is known as the Age of Pyramids. “The pyramid was the first monumental royal tomb” (Sayre, 2013, p.30). For Egyptians, a king’s death was not the end of the king’s life. His ka and ba, which were his soul and personality respectively, still existed. They could recognize the well-preserved body and rejoin it when the king was reborn someday. Before the king’s rebirth, the ka rested in the monumental royal sculpture. Same as pyramids, such sculptures were created “to preserve and guarantee the king’s existence after death,” according to Sayre (2013, p.31). Therefore, it is understandable why pyramids and sculptures were built during the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

         What amazes me the most is the quality of the sculpture, especially the faces of the two figures: the bone structures, the eye lids, the noses, the lips, and the ears. They look so natural that I am surprised with the skills the ancient Egyptian artists mastered. The sculpture was well polished. It looks like the natural skin texture of human. This is another surprise for me that the ancient Egyptians already mastered the technology of polishing stones. It is impressive that the sculpture was made with a single piece of greywacke (Boston Museum of Fine Arts, n. d.). If one mistake was made during the process, the piece of the stone would be abandoned and the whole job would be wasted. However, this sculpture was perfectly carved. After so many years, there is still no damage from what I see.

         I wonder why there are no eyeballs in the figures. With that skills, I am sure the artists could make them easily. Maybe like certain saying, eyes are the windows of soul. Only a live person can look at the world with his or her eyes. Once a person is dead, the windows are closed. I also wonder why people are uncertain about their relationship. From the female’s posture, her right arm embracing his back and her right hand resting on his waist, I assume an intimate relationship must exist between them. Although “later kings are often shown with their mothers,” I am not convinced that she could be his mother or a goddess (Boston Museum of Fine Arts, n. d., para.4). The interesting part when appreciating a work of art is that there is not enough information that explains the work. We have to question and then imagine the possible answers that keep us further searching any clue.

     Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (n. d.). Artwork. Retrieved from

    Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Hi Camille Tan

    Camille, I thoroughly enjoyed reading your post. It was very well written, interesting, and educational. I like that you included that if a mistake was made during the creation of the statue it would be restarted with new stone. That is amazing, and I can imagine just how long it took to create this intricate art work. I did not know that the statues of kings often included their mothers, and in some ways i agree with you that it is hard to believe with some of the poses the statues are in. I thought your idea about the eyes was fantastic, I never thought of it that way.   
     Hello Camille,

    The fact that the Egyptians were magnificent sculptors is eminent in every pyramid related structure that we find in Giza. However the structural build up of the anatomy of humans that we find in the work of Egyptians is undoubtedly unimaginable back in those days. The proportional perfection of the 8 foot statue of Menkaura as well of his queen speaks about the inimitable artistic expertise of the Egyptian sculptors.  To acknowledge you of a certain fact I would like to that the slaves who carried the marble stones to the pyramid construction sites in Giza used to do so on foot and no automation was provided to them .

     Hello Tan,

    Great post Camille. It is pretty amazing to think how they would have accomplished this building these massive pyramids. I found this picture very interesting as well! I have always wanted to see one in person! It amazes that they were able to create such pyramids with such little materials! Also I can't believe how long they stayed standing when old built out of mud and clay! It would be a pretty site to see some day. I watched a documentary many years ago that gave possible suggestions as to how historians believed they were able to move these massive stones. One of the theories was by using tree logs to roll the stones to the base of the pyramid. Since the Egyptians had such a strong labor force back then they would have many of the laborers pulling the stones with ropes up inclines and that they would possibly use horses to help pull the stones as well. It was a very interesting documentary on the History channel, I can see if I can still find it somewhere if you would like. 

     Hi Camille,

    I found your post pretty interesting and informative. I do agree that Egyptians were amazing sculptors as shown  by their work. I do not know. however, that they would abandon any work that they did not find perfect. I can only imagine how long it would take them for one sculpture. The fact that they made sure everything was perfect can clearly be seen today. Thank you so much for your post.

    I really enjoyed reading your post. Egyptians were one of the most amazing sculptures and their works are very impressive from the tombs to the elaborate pyramids they built with basic tools. The archeologists and historians are still surprised and impress as to how they achieve this. The Egyptians believed in the afterlife, the focus was on eternal life and the certainty of personal existence beyond death. The wealthier Egyptians were buried in tombs that were painted with various scenes had various meanings; some for protection on their journey. Objects and animals are often included because they had great symbolic importance. According to Sayre (2012), religion was an integral part of the life of the Egyptians and manifested itself through nature. According to Eiland, the goal was to draw an ideal scene from memory. The scenes in the tomb represented the hoped-for after-life, in which there were fertile fields and harmony and happiness at home; representing it in the tomb was thought to ensure an ideal existence in the next world. The deceased is usually portrayed in the prime of life, with no physical defects and is not usually an accurate likeness of the person.

    Great post



    Sayre, H. M. (2013) Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). [Vitalsource]. Retrieved from 

    Eiland, M. (n.d.) Paintings of the Tomb-Chapel of Nebamun. Museum Reviews: Egypt. Athena Review, (5). 1. Retrieved from

     Hello Regla, I Enjoy watching documentaries on architecture as well. "Architecture is about the use of space" (Chamberlain University 2018). I recently watched a show about the development of Chicago during the Industrial Age. It amazes me how high rise buildings were created without the use of modern technology. It shoed how artwork influenced the look of buildings. The use of differnt moldings, tile and ceiling details inside and outside of buildings were explained and shown how it's characteristics are related to Historical architecture. 


    Chaberlain University. (2018). HUMN303N Introduction to Humanities: Week 1 lesson. Tinley Park, IL: Online Publication.

    Class, humor me & try to just use your text for this one. I'd like to know what you think about these works of art before you run to the Google gods!

    Remember, I just said, "I'd like to know what YOU think" - so there is no "right" or "wrong" answer here, only your opinions on the works of art you have chosen.

    Have fun with this! :)


    What do I think of the Venus of Willendorf?

    At first the head was real confusing. I wasn’t sure what was going their so I just moved on. Come to find out its suspected to be a braid wrapped around her head. Still think I’m confused about that one. I thought she was on the bigger side which I was excited about. I hate all the promotion of skinny, tiny woman cause really that doesn’t mean your healthy. If you see a skinny dog, the assumption is they are mistreated so I wonder why it’s total opposite when it comes to humans. I like the detail in the sculpture. A lot of people are uneasy when it comes to sexual images but I think there beautiful.

     Hi Professor,

    Ok, my first impression of the Venus of Willendor statue was, wow! Her body is pretty realistic to many women in today's society.  I am including myself, since I am not in the best shape right now, especially after the holidays!  But with society today and the obesity epidemic, I am sure we can all see someone we either know or have seen with this body.  I did appreciate the realistic reference to today's woman, instead of the size zero models and actresses that today's society displays in every magazine and tv show, depicting their view of what they think woman should look like. So looking at that little statue, I thought, ok, even ancient women had some what real bodies. By the way, I am smiling while writing this, fun stuff!


    I am right there with you - the promotion of unrealistically skinny women in our society is a real problem. I too was pleased to see the female body expressed in a more realistic way. I was even more impressed when I read the description of the piece of work which explained that it was assumed that this was the carver's ideal image of female beauty. Sayre (2013) also explained that the exaggerated abdomen and breasts could be representative of fertility/childbearing and that having body fat could mean the difference between life and death. This still rings true today - one cannot survive without body fat. I wonder what caused such a drastic shift in society - from valuing women who could bear children and survive and thrive in part due to their fat stores - to various points in modern history where being thin is in and fat shaming is a pervasive problem. 


    Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

     Professor and Class,

    In our text (Sayre,2013 pg.8) Stonehenge in England is a reflection of the ancient culture that created it. Stonehenge consisted of upright stones stuck in the ground. This was a basic design, constructed without a mortar. Some of the stones weighed 50 tons and were 24 feet tall. Some of the sand stones were retrieved from 120 miles away. In these times, when this was built, it seems that a lot of thought was put into this as for the architectural design. There must have been some sort of a measuring device to get the stones just the right distance apart from each other. There must have been a pulley or a lift type of system that was used to move the heavy stones around. It was said that during the Summer Solstice that the sun rose over the Heel Stone and that this group of stones was connected to the movement of the sun. It was also said that this was some sort of a burial ground. To me this resembles the monuments of today’s cemeteries.

    What surprised me the most was how this was built without the use of the heavy machinery that we use today. It must have taken quite a few workers to build this. I am also surprised that it is still standing after all these years. It is a simple design that was created without tools. It took someone that was able to think and plan of how all of these stones were to be put together and how they were going to get there.  

     Jill Robbins

    • Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


        Hello, Jill,

             Thanks for your post. I am also curious how those huge stones were managed to put together in the ancient time. Putting them at a certain distance, especially the sun rises over the Heel Stone during the Summer Solstice must be extremely difficult. However, the people did it successfully. Isn’t it amazing?

             The Stonehenge reminds me of another stone work, the Great Wall in China. The Stonehenge was built in one location, but the Great Wall was built on top of mountains. The total length of the Great Wall is more than 13,000 miles long. How did people transport those stones to the top of mountains? I do not know how difficult to build the Great Wall, but I do know it is difficult to walk in some areas. The stairs are so steep that I had to grab the side walls carefully while going down.

             There are still many unanswered questions about the amazing works in the world. We will continue seeking the answers. Meanwhile, we should enjoy these artworks to appreciate human history and cultures.Jill and Camille,


        The Stonehenge in England was a huge project for even today's heavy equipment. They definitely would have needed a great deal of planning and a huge amount of man power to move the stones from as far away as they did. This is just one example of something from the past that was created with out machines. Camille gives us another example with the great wall of China. The planning that had to go into a project of this magnitude is huge. The determination to complete such a project and to have workers committed to such a huge undertaking. Another huge project from the past is the great pyramids. The sheer size of the pyramids and the size and weight of each stone. The decades of commitment to complete. The engineering involved with completing them. All of these were built with no machines to lift stones in place. I find it amazing that these projects were ever started let alone completed. I hope in thousands of years something from our generation is still standing and students are studying them. Great posts, and topic! Thanks for sharing!



        You mentioned some great questions. The amount of strength and determination it must have took to complete such massive works of art amazes me. The Great Wall of China amazes me too, I just can't put the thought of the amount of effort it took for that wall to be created. Looking at how these works of art are still standing today kinda makes me chuckle. Back then, the method of building was so much more precise and complete where as today, objects are being made so cheap as the primary concern is simply how to make the most profit. Because of this, I feel the younger generations such as myself are unable to experience the full beauty of art. 

        Hello, Sarah,

             Thanks for your comment and humble thoughts. I do believe people in the past truly pursued and appreciated what they loved without financial purpose. Maybe that is why the artworks have been thought to be valuable and well preserved. I am not saying there is no true art in the current age. There are still many enthusiastic artists working on their pursuits. Since the capitalism is dominant in the economic world, the demand in the market is more important than the value of art. In the industrial age, artisans gradually disappeared because their work was replaced by machines that could quickly make more products. Using the cheapest material and labor is one of the means for businessmen to earn the most profit at a lowest cost. Today, when we hear something is hand-made, we feel it must be precious and unique. Unfortunately, we are unable to go back to the time that every single thing was made by men. However, the beauty of art has been existed. As long as we look for it with our hearts, we will discover it.


HUMN303N Week 1: Ancient Art: Eastern and Western Origins

What is the value of studying the humanities in a business or technical curriculum? How might a topic such as ancient art enhance contemporary life?

Professor and Class,


      Professor and Class, 

      I am a big believer in knowledge is power, and at first sight you may not think art is important to techie people, but look back on art, the meaning, the values within it, and techie people can use that knowledge in something as simple as creating a website. Using not only the actual art itself but also the influence of it, playing their website design off of the values expressed by those they are creating it for. The more they understand about the literature, the better they can create a blog and write something that is easily and enjoyably read. 


       Hello Professor Ford, 

      I know many techie types and would agree that they are often more detailed. Working both sides of the brain is helpful to all people in any field. I believe that it is important to keep an opened mind. By doing this, a person can learn and gain knowledge in many areas which will help the individual in their career and in their personal life. 

      Melissa Gilliland 

      Hello Professor Ford,

      I can see why you mention that technologically oriented people make ideal students of literature, art and philosophy. I think that the personality that gravitates towards the field of technology tend to be people who are detail oriented and often the type that likes to think "outside of the box". 

      As to the thought of when will I use humanities in life? I think that we use it everyday. It's all around us. It is the human experience from where we have been in the study of the past to where we are move towards into the future. 

      Collapse SubdiscussionBarbara Lahens

      Barbara Lahens

      Manage Discussion Entry

        Professor and Class,

      There is a threat to the perceived value of the humanities in the culture at large. This manifest itself in two ways: reduced public support for humanities research, and students being steered away from studying the humanities in university. Criticism from those who say ‘tell us why we should invest resources in humanities education, why parent should spend good money to have their children study literature, art or why the state should subsidize degrees in philosophy. Science and engineering degrees can be viewed as effective ways of getting jobs and we (as a country) need more scientists and engineers, but what is a degree in cultural anthropology worth?’ Frankly, I don’t see why should the humanities have to justify themselves to the standards of the sciences any more than scientific values have to justify themselves by the standards of the humanities? You might make more money as an engineer, but you will be culturally illiterate, historically ignorant, and un-insightful. To me the humanities are not a pleasurable diversion that ought to be valued as entertainment. Humanities give us ‘culture’ and culture is what is left when all is forgotten.


      1. Ismael, J. Why science will never replace the humanities: Philosophy talk produced by KLAW on behalf of Stanford University. 
        Megan Lesniak

        Megan Lesniak

        Manage Discussion Entry

        Hi, Barbara

        Your post caught my attention and I thank you for that.  I am a student who knows very little about Humanities and what it entails (why I decided to take this class).  I feel that there are many prerequisites that would benefit many students of all ages, although, like Humanities is not encouraged as heavily as other courses. 

        I agree with your viewpoint when expressing the importance of an engineer taking Humanities.  When considering designs and buildings in engineering, understanding Humanities is imperative to respect and understand culture and maintain satisfactory infrastructure.

        Since businessmen and companies co-op with engineers, do you think both parties need to consider some aspects of humanities when collaborating together?

        -Megan Lesniak

        Professor and Class,

        Techies and all other students that are looking to be well rounded and have a better understanding of the world would benefit from the taking of humanities. " More importantly, such an education provides its recipients with the ability and vital ingredients necessary to think critically and holistically about a plethora of issues, including business, science, and technology for that matter"(Watson,2014). Having knowledge of the humanities makes for one to have a better chance for a higher paying job and are sought out more by employers than those applicants that did not study humanities.  Studying of other cultures brings a type of creativity inspired by the history of others.

        Jill Robbins

        Watson, Elwood (2014). Studying the Humanities Always Will Be Important. Diverse Issues in Higher Education. Retrieved from

         I am an avid reader for pleasure and loved your analogy between a good book taking you to a different place in time and the study humanities having the same effect. I hadn't really thought of that comparison before but it is spot on! I also very much appreciate where you explain the human element which may help us to look beyond ourselves for our own betterment. As a nurse (I'm in the RN-BSN program) this really rings true to me. I very often must put my own self-interests aside in the name of my patients. I also need to have an appreciation of multiple cultures and have a broad world view in order to be truly competent in my profession. I believe the study of humanities will help me in all regards. 


        I have asked some of my friends, their thoughts on their Humanities class. Some had colorful responses but others were more helpful. One said that it helped her to sound more informed when around a certain groups of people and another to be more articulate. They all found what they read was interesting and had never been exposed to it before.

         I found that for me it will be a lot of work reading but certainly will bring out more of the artistic side of me. So far, I have learned many of my classmates are pretty curious, comfortable and expressive about the art that interests them. It appears to be like reading a very interesting book that can take you to another place in time an open up your imagination. It helps to think more about the possibilities of the world. It gets you to think about how creative people who had less access were able to create so much that now centuries later we are still fascinated by their work. There is a human side that it teaches us to look beyond ourselves which may help us do better in our lives overall. We are learning about cultures and how those before us survived and expressed themselves. “A culture encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down from one generation to the next. (Sayer, 2013, p. 2).


        Sayer, H.M. (2013). Discovering the humanities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

         Hello, professor and class,

             My understanding of humanities is about the history of arts, including architecture, painting, and music. Studying humanities helps students appreciate the works of art. When we are appreciating the works, we have to connect the background of the works in order to better understand its meaning and significance. When was it created? Who created it? Why did the artist want to create such an artwork? These questions will motivate us to search for further information about this artwork, culture, and history. As Sayre (2013) stated, “Exploring the humanities will help you develop your ability to look, listen, and read closely, and to analyze, connect, and question” (p. viii).

             I cannot imagine a businessman can be successful without knowledge of arts. If you want to sell your products quickly, you must make your products and shopping environment including a website, attractive. Many businesses do not hesitate to spend millions of dollars on advertisement to increase the sale. All these require a nice design. If you study the humanities, you will have the ability to decide which design will be perfect for your products. Just like a car, although its engine can speed up to 180 miles per hour, consumers will not want to purchase it if its appearance is not attractive.

             Ancient art is the treasure of human societies. It can be inspiring in contemporary life. Human mind is influenced by cultures, values, and beliefs. People do not just create something without meaning. Based on our culture, what we believe is beautiful will be kept or evolve in modern life. Some artists or designers are even inspired by different cultures. For example, some clothing design is considered retro or containing elements from other cultures. To me, it is amazing that ancient art is still connected with contemporary life. When our time becomes ancient time, I believe our artwork will also be considered ancient art and appreciated by our future generations.

         Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


        I enjoyed reading your post. Businesses do spend a lot of money on advertising. As you have said businesses want to have the most attractive way to show off their product hoping it is the next best thing for everyone to want. Some consumers purchase products to be just like other consumers or to try to “keep up with the Jones”. While other consumers want to be different from everyone else and try different things just to be different. I am sure that when one goes to an art gallery the paintings that are displayed are viewed differently then what the artist had intended. It would be a boring world if we were all the same and had all the same opinions. The studying of humanities is important in order to understand why people are different-different cultures, different ways of thinking, different beliefs.Through studying of the arts such as literary works, dance, theater, film, or visual arts such as paintings or sculptures from the past, one will have a better understanding of where they came from and what the future has in store for them. It will give a better understanding of what is needed in the future and to learn from the past, through the understanding of past theories and traditions ( Stanford University,n.d.). To think outside of the box- being creative and asking questions.

        Jill Robbins

        Stanford University, n.d., Why do the humanities matter? Standford Humanities Center. Retrieved from


        I enjoyed reading your post. I like the your train of thought on this topic. I too believe that we must study old to help us understand their ways of doing things as well as help us learn new ways of doing things. I also believe that what one person finds unattractive another may find beauty within. That car that does 180 may be what attracts a person versus the color or what others may think is beautiful. I would also agree that to sell most products research is needed to see what is appealing to the market the product is geared for. I also believe that if it is a good product it will sell itself. I would also agree that the human mind is influenced by cultures, values, and beliefs. This is evident in who raises us, where we grow up, and even our nationalities. Great post, thanks for sharing.


        It can be wild to think of how far reaching and important the humanities are to us and how they are embedded in different places.  Your reference to the humanities in advertising made me think of these commercials, anyone else? to an external site.


        Very interesting post! You mentioned some great examples. I really liked how you discussed how businessmen use humanities in ways to help with advertising. I never would have thought of that and the correlation with humanities. I agree with what you said about how all of our society is really based upon past events in time. Great Job!

        Hi Camille, 

        Studying about the history of arts gives us a clearer idea of how we evolved into the present date. The process of understanding our race is necessary in order to predict the usual trends of human behavior. Humanities are the only discipline that can actually teach us about the intricacies of the human race and their tendencies and inclinations better. I am in absolute agreement thus with your point where you say that Humanities helps us in being more experienced with human nature. In fact Humanities as well allows us to study about ourselves and understand our mental and physiological processes more rationally.

        Hi Camille,

        I agree with you that ancient art is the treasure of human societies. It enhances our lives by giving us a better understanding of how the history is made, why different cultures are the way they are. We get to see and learn how creative people were in the past and how much changes were made in today’s society. We can learn from their past experiences and build on them to make things better today.

        Gang Zhang

        Hi Camille,

        “Exploring the humanities will help you develop your ability to look, listen, and read closely, and to analyze, connect, and question” (p. viii). That is sentence that I agree with 100%. In the medical field, these characteristics are extremely important. A nurse, you spend the most time with the patient. You not only have to be able to see and analyze a patient but also things like labs and object assessments, you also have to be able to connect those dots and see what the patient is in need of. Class, I do get one question quite frequently - similar to what some students say about math - "but when will I use it in my real life?" :)

        Why should techie types bother to study the humanities? I strongly believe technologically oriented people are the ideal students of literature, art, and philosophy. They bring a different, often more detailed, perspective, and I think working both sides of the brain is ultimately helpful in any field.

        What do you think?

         The word "innovators" found in our lesson 1 reading is really important. It really stuck out to me. Anything accomplished in life has been accomplished by people that care to create. What would we do if people did not create? We all create every day. Simply doing laundry for example. Once a task that included a rock and water, now an innovated machine that is plugged in, piped with water that is soapy, spun, and again water that is un-soapy, spun some more and finally, concluded with the end results of clean clothes. It is people that care to be creative. We all benefit from creativity, whether an engineer, architect, or a play write. These things all bring people together in some way or another. Ha, not sure the washing machine makes sense, but it does to me. The Holy Bible shares a scripture explaining the importance of the body as a whole, "Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body" (1 Corinthians 12:12). Our hand, for example, functions so much better with all five fingers, when one is missing, it is not quite as good as it is with all five fingers. We can function, but it is better when all is included. Techies and math-heads are a much needed "member" of the body or mankindThank you so much for your response! I love your comment about reading a good book and going to a different place, I am a big believer in the magic of reading an actual book, and the things you learn from them. I also love your comments about the realization of how creative people could be in a time when modern technologies were not available. They did not have the resources we have today and yet they were so intellectual and had such an incredible creative mind, they were able to create beautiful masterpieces simply by imagination. I wish someday's I could experience their era for a day so I could truly see, enjoy and better understand their thought process and how they developed such an incredible mind set. 

        Hi Katie,

         The study of humanities is helpful in understanding humans better. The statement might seem like an aspect of common sense but its impact is actually heavier than what we can perceive. Knowing the several front of human life and studying it chronologically helps us understand the evolutionary process of our customers better. Even if we all are humans we all have racially and fiscally contrasting stories of evolution. Thus to understand the humans in general it is needed that we study humanity so that we can deal with humans better.

         Hi Katie,

        I completely agree with you that studying humanities in a business or technical curriculum is very valuable to every one of us. I think humanities gives insight into the past just like studying history which would provide many valuable lesson learned information. I also think understanding there are so many different cultures and how that influences people is very important. As stated from our text book (Sayre, 2012), "A culture encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down from one generation to the next". Being aware of the different aspects of cultures by studying humanities can help find what people value.

        Gang Zhang

         I absolutely agree.  By taking the time to study and learn the progression of the humanities through the years, we are learning about different cultures, different views, experiences, and different portrayals of what they found beautiful.  “For thousands of years people have sought to create objects of beauty and significance- objects we call art- that did more than simply help them survive” (Stokstad & Collins, pg 19, 1999).   Understanding difference and our history provides us with opportunities to learn from others and see things differently.  Many things in life can be improved on by looking to how others may have done them, or incorporating different aspects into our own. 


        Stokstad, M,. Collins, B. R., & Addiss, S. (1999). Art History. New York: H.N. Abrams.

          Hi Katie, 

        I completely agree with you. We may not think of art as something that is important to our lives as far as business and technical is concern but we can learn a lot from art in any profession. Even the medical field benefits from art. A lot of things we use start out as a design that someone came up with. Things as  simple as the Hi/Low bed that is used in the hospital started out as a design that is very valuable today. Art is constantly changing our lives wether we notice it or not

         I feel studying humanities in a business or technical curriculum is incredibly valuable. As we look back in history we can see the effects of people’s actions and inventions and how it either strengthened or hurt our world today. We can approach problems with a more open mind and more information as we look at how others did it in the past and how it worked, or didn’t work.  Ancient art can enhance contemporary life in many ways, not only can we look at the art put into buildings and how buildings from hundreds of years ago are able to stand against time teaching us the value in the way they built them, but also enhancing our understanding of the time and culture. We can better understand their values and beliefs and it allows us a more open-minded concept as we live our lives.

        Katie Lowran

        Hi KatieHi Jean, 


    Holy Bible. 1 Corinthians 12:12 (New International Version) Retrieved from:

    The  Holy Bible

    Hello, professor and class,

       I also often hear the similar complaints. To me, studying math helps our brains analyze and solve problems. People ask when they use math in real life. Actually, they do not realize that they use it all the time. For nurses, calculating time and medication dose is a daily work. Unfortunately, some nurses still struggle with the basic calculation.

       Should technical personnel study literature? Definitely. After they discover or invent something, how are they going to claim their achievement? By publishing an article. Without writing skills, how can they precisely describe the process and convince the public to accept their work?

       I met a plastic surgeon years ago and was surprised to find out he could play violin and draw pictures very well. He said that a plastic surgeon having received education of arts is an artist. This is so true. As professor mentioned, it will be helpful when both sides of brains are working.


Sentinel City Community Windshield Survey Essay


Competency 7019.1.1: Epidemiology - The graduate applies principles of epidemiology to the assessment of the healthcare needs of communities.
Competency 7019.1.5: Environmental Health - The graduate assesses the impact of the environment on the health of the community.
Competency 7019.1.8: Cultural Competency - The graduate analyzes social and cultural factors that affect the care of diverse populations.

Task 1: Community Health Simulation


More emphasis is being placed on healthier communities as changes are occurring in the fields of healthcare financing, policy, and focus. One of the primary roles of a community health nurse is to assess the community or population in order to determine its health status in relation to its assets and needs.

In this task, you will engage in a Community Health simulation for a total of 40 hours to gather information about a virtual community. Sentinel City™ Community Health Simulation is a virtual city developed by Healthcare Learning Innovations to represent what you may find in any real United States city. You will be able to take a virtual bus trip and/or walk around the city while observing the environment and people of Sentinel City™. Through your observations, you will gather information to assess potential health issues and risks within this online virtual learning environment.

You will assess different factors that may contribute to or detract from the health and wellness of the community and its citizens. During your trips through the city, you may be asked to describe the people you see and any expected or unexpected findings related to the citizens of Sentinel City™. Your keen observations will be the foundation to successfully completing assignments within your course. The simulation website will automatically log your hours and produce a special report at the end of each session. Be sure to have a notepad to record your observations of Sentinel City™ in preparation for this task.

The link to Sentinel City™ is located in the Community Care and Collaboration section of the Course of Study. Please review the Sentinel City Quick Start Guide, Student Guide, and Troubleshooting and FAQs Guide prior to engaging in the Sentinel City™.

You may also want to download the Demographic Assessment, Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory, Windshield Survey and Population Health Scavenger Hunt tools located in the attachment section to complete section B of this task.


Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. Use the Turnitin Originality Report available in Taskstream as a guide for this measure of originality.

You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.

A. Within Sentinel City™ you will notice a camera icon. Use the camera to take pictures within the simulation. Use the "enter text" feature to add your observations to the pictures. Submit a PDF of your action report from Sentinel City™ that includes the following completed activities from Industrial Heights, Casper Park District, Acer Tech Center, and Nightingale Square:

• Interfaith Church

• Sentinel City School District

• Sentinel City Department of Transportation

• Better Health Clinic

• ABC Daycare

• Sentinel City Affordable Housing Project

• City Hall

• Radio Buzz 96.5FM

• Sentinel City Healthcare System

• Lilly’s

• Joe’s Grocery

• Sentinel City Department of Parks and Recreation

B. Complete a needs-assessment summary to determine the health needs and risks of the virtual community in Sentinel City™ by using each of the following tools:

Note: These tools can be found either in the web links section or as an attachment to this task.

• Demographics Assessment

• Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory

• Windshield Survey

• Population Health Scavenger Hunt

Note: The name of each of the four tools should be identified in the needs-assessment summary, along with a brief summary of how each of the four tools were used in the needs assessment.

1. Analyze the collected data using concepts of epidemiology and health determinants.

Note: Refer to these three sections of your COS for additional information: Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Epidemiological Data, and Application of Epidemiology.

C. Formulate a community diagnosis for Sentinel City™ by doing the following:

1. Discuss the three problems for Sentinel City™ based on the Healthy People 2020 goals.

2. Discuss community resources (e.g., Sentinel City™ Affordable Housing Project, Better Health Clinic) that are available to address one of the problems identified in part C1.

3. Identify a primary prevention topic based on the problem you selected in part C2.

Note: See the attached “Approved Topic List” for guidance in formulating your topic.

D. Discuss how you will apply the assessment strategies you have learned from the simulation environment to your community assessment strategies in your community.

E. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

F. Demonstrate Professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.

File Attachments:
Approved Topics List link opens in new window
Demograhics_Neighborhood Safety_Scavenger Hunt link opens in new window
Windshield Survey link opens in new window
Web Links:
1. Healthy People 2020 link opens in new window-
2. KLP Task 1 Rubric-


NURS 350 assignment week 2

Literature review, Topic HIV/AIDS.

assignment week 2. Please use E-text reading material. And I must have references, and citations.
Instructions: you will write a mini-systematic literature review. it is mini because you will only be reviewing two sources. for this literature review assignment, we are going to give you a choice of three topics to choose from. choose one for this assignment hiv/aids remember, for a systematic review, focus your analysis on the treatments, causes, diagnosis, and prognosis presented in the, conduct your research of scholarly articles. use the wcu online library databases. you will need to choose two sources to include in this mini-literature review.   for this review, be sure to:select two relevant and appropriate scholarly articles that address the topic you chose.present a thorough literature review of both articles by summarizing, synthesizing, and evaluating the materials.demonstrate understanding of the content presented in the articles.include a critical assessment of the sources. do not simply include a summary of what you chose. present a thorough literature review of both articles by summarizing, synthesizing, and evaluating the materials. demonstrate understanding of the content presented in the articles. include a critical assessment of the sources. do not simply include a summary of what you have read. incorporate citations into your body paragraphs; incorporate the essential and most relevant supporting evidence eloquently and appropriately. present your writing in a clear, organized manner. provide a strong introduction and conclusion, including further questions for research. use proper apa format with proper citations. review apa citations here ?your literature review should be 1–2 pages in length. remember, you will need to use apa formatting in your literature review and include a title page and a reference page. review the rubric for more details on how your assignment will be graded. due: sunday, 11:59 p.m. (pacific time) points: 100

The recent studies performed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention have revealed a rapid increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS (CDC 2015).  In 2016, the CDC released a report about the number of infections in the State of Illinois, indicating that in the year 2013, Illinois was among the States with a high number of HIV infections, precisely, at position 8 out of the 50 States tested, with a total of 35,216 HIV/AIDS cases (CDC, 2016). The utilization of quantitative data in this study makes the discovery of social facts about this condition easier, and offers a measurable reality in regard to the same. Particularly, the researchers reveal the importance of implementing an awareness program to enlighten the public about the risk associated with HIV/AIDS transmission and how to counter this condition. As such, ,the information provided therein is reliable can be used to explore the possible measures to counter the rapid spread of HIV/AIDs in illinois, as well as in other  areas across the globe. However, a question that needs answers, is that what are the fueling parameters leading to this prevalence? Coming up with a suitable solution to this question will facilitate the development of countermeasures against this prevalence.
Patel, et al. (2014), in their research established that effective HIV prevention programs need precise estimates of the per-act risk of contracting HIV/AIDS from parental and unprotected sexual misconducts. In this evaluation, it was evident that the top three possibilities for contracting the virus included unprotected anal sex with an infected partner, mother-to-child transmission, and blood transfusion. Also, the study made use of quantitative analysis, attenuating 99.2% of HIV cases to unprotected intercourse (Patel et al., 2014). In this regard, this study is relevant as it provides a fundamental basis for developing prevention measures, including educating the public about the importance of condoms. However, given that condoms do not provide 100% assurance, are they still reliable as a countermeasure?


  1. CDC. (2015). An introduction to applied epidemiology and biostatistics. In Principles of epidemiology in public health practice. Retrieved from Office of public health scientific services:

  2. CDC. (2016). Illinois- 2015 state health profile. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control:

  3. Patel, P., Borkowf, C., Brooks, J., Lasry, A., Lansky, A., and Mermin, J. (2014). Estimating per-act HIV transmissin risk: a systematic review. AIDS: Official Journal of the International AIDS Society, 28(10), 1509-1519. doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000298

Cancer Pathophysiology

nstructions: * in-text citations are a requirement for credit. if you are not familiar with in-text citations (apa format) please see supplemental information under course documents. there is a link to an apa website and a ppt file that explains how and when to cite. * this is a pathophysiology course so that aspect must be emphasized in all writing assignments. * try and provide answers in the context of the patient (if provided). in other words, what is the underlying biology causing the symptoms? ms johanson and mr. tompkins both have lung cancer. she has a stage i tumor of the lung and he has a stage iv tumor. identify the similarities and differences between these tumors.

The grading of tumors depends on how they appear under the microscope. Grading of tumors serves as the cornerstone of care provision among cancer patients (Detterbeck, Boffa, Kim, & Tanoue, 2017). Grade I or IV tumors are the description of how the abnormal tumor cells look and spread. Therefore, grade IV tumors are an indication that the abnormal cells in Mr. Tompkins have spread faster than those in Ms. Johanson. Nevertheless, grade tumors should not be confused with staging that entails defining the magnitude of the tumors and the extent to which it has spread. 

Also Read :Evolving Practice of Nursing and Patient Care Delivery Models

Ms. Johanson is suffering from grade I tumors that have affected her lungs. Lung cancer is among the leading causes of death with about 25 percent of all cancer deaths (Lu et al., 2019). Under the observation of a microscope, it would be difficult to distinguish between the normal cells and grade I tumors. A pathologist could classify that Ms. Johanson's grade I tumors resemble the surrounding usual cells and are well-differentiated. The grade I tumors also grow and spread at a slower rate than grade IV tumors with Mr. Tompkins. Besides, grade I tumors have normal tissue structures. 

In the case of Mr. Tompkins, the grade IV tumors are poorly-differentiated. They look abnormal. Besides, they have abnormal tissue structures. Besides, grade IV tumors spread at a higher rate than grade I tumors. That is, they could invade other body sites away from where the original tumor site. As well, grade IV tumors are not encapsulated. 

The similarities between the grade I and IV tumors are minimal. Nonetheless, the diagnosis of grade 1 and IV tumors could be done using biopsies. Besides, the tumors are similar in that they have invaded the same body parts. That is the lungs. Therefore, early treatment could have helped but Ms. Johanson would have higher survival chances of survival than Mr. Tompkins.


Detterbeck, F. C., Boffa, D. J., Kim, A. W., & Tanoue, L. T. (2017). The eighth edition lung cancer stage classification. Chest151(1), 193-203.

Lu, T., Yang, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, M., Ma, K., ... & Wang, Q. (2019). Trends in the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with lung cancer in the last four decades. Cancer management and research11, 943.



  1. Detterbeck, F. C., Boffa, D. J., Kim, A. W., and Tanoue, L. T. (2017). The eighth edition lung cancer stage classification. Chest, 151(1), 193-203.
  2. Lu, T., Yang, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, M., Ma, K., ... and Wang, Q. (2019). Trends in the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with lung cancer in the last four decades. Cancer management and research, 11, 943.

  3. Lu, T., Yang, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, M., Ma, K., ... and Wang, Q. (2019). Trends in the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with lung cancer in the last four decades. Cancer management and research, 11, 943.


Moral Reasoning (PHL 200)

Assignment Details

Cultural Differences and the Case of Fauziya Kassindja: Consider the case of Fauziya Kassindja, discussed by James Rachels (ML5 147-148). Rachels suggests that a cultural relativist would avoid imposing the standards of American culture in this case, and instead take a live and let live approach to this case. First, analyze the case using the lens of cultural relativism. Is Rachels right that a cultural relativist would remain neutral about the cultural practice of female excision? Second, the US government did eventually grant Kassindja’s asylum request. Was this ruling consistent with a cultural relativist’s approach to cultural differences? And do you think the court was right to grant the request? Why or why not? Consider at least one objection to your own viewpoint and give your best response to this objection.  

Instructions: Write a 3-4 page essay responding to the question prompt. Be sure to respond to each part of the question prompt and support your answer with clearly stated reasons. You should use the course readings and quote from the readings wherever relevant to show how what you have learned is informing your view on this question. 

Length and formatting: 3-4 pages, standard formatting (i.e., double-spaced, Times New Roman font, 1 inch margins). You must cite your sources and provide a bibliography. You should use the citation system employed in your profession/discipline. For health sciences, this is usually APA. If your discipline does not have a preferred citation system or you do not know it, use Chicago Manual of Style, Documentation Style II: Author-Date Reference style. 

Style guidelines: Imagine that you are writing for someone who is not part of our class, not for the professor. This person is intelligent and educated, but she does not know anything about what we have learned this semester. See “Addendum A” for advice on using the first-person (“I”).

Peer-review Process: This paper is due in two parts. In the first part, you will submit a complete draft to a partner for peer-review. Reading your partner’s paper and giving them high-quality feedback is worth 10% of your paper grade. In the second part, you will submit the final, revised version of your paper. This will be worth 90% of your paper grade.

Judging a Cultural Practice to be Undesirable

The argument on cultural relativism continues to become more prominent as the world becomes a global village. The issue of immigration continues to be prominent in the world right now as people leave their birth countries for other regions. Currently, America has the most multicultural population with different cultures merging to live the American dream. One way to ensure it remains a stable society is by encouraging cultural relativism. Cultural relativism dictates that we understand people's cultures based on their choices to practice them. We should not judge them based on what our own cultures direct us. However, finding this independent moral ground remains a challenge in the contemporary world where people want to achieve uniformity by assuming their own cultures should reign.

James Rachels gives the story of Fauzia Kassindja as a great dilemma on the concept of cultural relativism. Fauzia escaped female genital mutilation in Togo and sought asylum in the United States. Her community gives numerous reasons to justify female genital mutilation and they include; to reduce unwanted pregnancies, to increase the level of submission of women, and that it is a culture that they seek to perpetuate. Several reasons exist against female genital mutilation which includes; the risk of infection, increased risk in childbirth, reduced sexual pleasure for women and that is plain cruel and unnecessary. However much these reasons make sense, the concept of cultural relativism requires that you make these observations from a rational independent standpoint devoid of your own culture's influence. 

The author makes an interesting argument about cultural relativism, which is to find fault in culture by looking it from the perspective of those who practice it. Rachels and Rachels (2014) note that one question one should ask is "whether the practice promotes or hinders the welfare of those affected by it". In the case of excision, we should look at whether it promotes the welfare of those who practice it from an informed point of view. Opoku et al. (2020) researched sub-Saharan African countries that practice excision and found that these countries still experienced early sexual initiation among girls. Further research revealed that specific communities that practice the culture also record significant levels of early pregnancies. 

Also Read:  Mental Health Access

From the studies above, it is clear that the practice does not necessarily advance some of its most revered intentions. This casts doubt on the necessity of the practice because clearly, excision does not prevent early initiation into sex and does not also prevent premarital pregnancies. From an independent point of view, supported by evidence, female genital mutilation is merely a culture that continues even when there are no visible benefits of practising it. So far, the only reason that stands is the community's efforts to preserve their culture, which does not make for a strong argument.

The second element of the independent question one asks is “whether the culture hinders the welfare of the people affected by it. Those affected by it are the people that practice it. There are two levels of people affected in the culture of female genital mutilation and the first level is the women who have to go through it. The second level is the men and the community that supposedly benefits from it. Dahre (2017) notes that searching for a middle ground in cultural relativism is not necessarily about integrating universalism rather finding some moral space supports the culture.

Female genital mutilation hinders the first level of victims, who are women, sexual pleasure, freedom from pain and all the risks that come with having the procedure done. These risks include risky childbirth, excessive bleeding and infections (Opuku et al., 2020). The second level of victims is the men and the community. Failure to circumcise a woman does not hinder a man's sexual pleasure, neither does it affect the community in any way. Doing away with the culture benefits the community more, does not erode the benefits accrued before and benefits the main victims who are the women.

Looking at the description above, it is clear that cultural relativism is possible, but it should not be the only alternative when a practice involves the violation of human rights. Dahre (2017) agrees with Rachels and Rachels (2014) by noting that the concept of tolerance does not tie us to blindly accepting cultures even when they perpetuate discrimination. From the readings, it is clear that a certain level of ethnocentricism is necessary for cultural relativism. Rachels and Rachels (2014) explicitly note that the thought that some cultures are better than others creates the foundation for tolerance and change, which is necessary for contemporary society.  

In conclusion, James Rachels makes an excellent argument when he notes that morality is not relative. When judging a culture, it is good to avoid bias influenced by your own. However, when there are victims, if the rationale of a person’s argument is not central to their emancipation. The end goal of the argument is chief when judging a culture. This because there is no other way to put it when a culture perpetuates pain than to express it as it is.  


  1. Dahre, U. (2017). Searching For a Middle Ground: Anthropologists and the Debate on the Universalism and the Cultural Relativism of Human Rights, The International Journal of Human Rights Vol. 21(5), 611-628. Retrieved from 
  2. Opoku, B. et al. (2020). Examining the Association between Female Genital Mutilation and Early Sexual Initiation among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from 
  3. Rachels, J. and Rachels, S. (2014). The Elements of Moral Philosophy (6th Edition). Pennsylvania: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 
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