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NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Sample

Assessment 2- Applying Research Skills



Topic 3- Medication Errors

Annotated Bibliography

Capella University

NHS FPX 4000

9th April 2022



Alandajani, A., Khalid, B., Ng, Y. G., & Banakhar, M. (2022). Knowledge and attitudes regarding medication errors among nurses: A cross-sectional study in major Jeddah hospitals. Nursing Reports, 12(4), 1023-1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep12040098


The authors show that medication errors are a multifactorial problem and will often entail bypassing or missing to administer medication, which could have a life-threatening impact on the patient. The study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of nurses when it comes to medication errors in addition to the associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study in four major hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using an online self-administered questionnaire where the results found that the prevalence of nurse’s medication errors was associated with an age group of less than 25, these nurses did not have a history of attending an MER course, in addition to having poor knowledge on medication and negative attitude. The rationale for including this article in the research is that it provides the need for medication education for nurses to enable them to administer without risk. According to the findings, it is also important for healthcare institutions to mitigate this by ensuring nurses are educated on medical administration to reduce errors.


Dehvan, F., Saeed, D. M., Hasanpour Dehkordi, A., & Ghanei Gheshlagh, R. (2019). Quality of life of Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nursing Practice Today. https://doi.org/10.18502/npt.v6i4.1939



This study determines the prevalence of medication errors among nursing students through a systematic meta-analysis method. The researchers inform that healthcare promotion and ensuring the safety of patients is the main purpose of health therapeutic systems. When it comes to the nursing profession, it is important to acknowledge that nursing students will be exposed to medication errors when conducting clinical activities and this poses a threat to the safety of the patient. According to the study, the prevalence of nursing students committing medication errors was high, while also the likeliness of them not reporting these errors was high. The rationale for selecting this study is that it shows the importance of error reporting as a strategy to avoid future medication errors. The high prevalence of medication errors and lack of reporting of these errors should be taken into consideration if hospitals are to increase the levels of patient safety. Some suggestions include monitoring nursing students by clinical trainers and examination to the cause of medication errors. 

Gorgich, E. A., Barfroshan, S., Ghoreishi, G., & Yaghoobi, M. (2015). Investigating the causes of medication errors and strategies to prevention of them from nurses’ and nursing student viewpoint. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(8), 220. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n8p220

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In this cross–sectional descriptive study, the authors aimed to investigate the causes of medication errors and come up with strategies to prevent these errors from the viewpoint of nurses and nursing students. This is because medication errors is a serious problem in the world and one of the biggest threat to patient safety which could lead to death. According to the researcher, the most common causes of medication errors in nursing practice included burnout due to high workload, also there was poor drug calculation among nursing students.  The rationale for selecting this study is that it provides solutions for the prevention of medication errors such as reducing the work pressure by nursing personnel, ensuring the nurse-to-patient ratio, and having a unit as part of medication calculation. The study is very important also since it recommends that nurses leaders out to resolve the challenges of nurse shortages, ensure that they are well trained and nursing students are also trained on medication preparation and the side effects of different drugs which also includes having pharmacological knowledge. 


Izadpanah, F., Nikfar, S., Bakhshi Imcheh, F., & Amini, M. (2018). Assessment of frequency and causes of medication errors in pediatrics and emergency wards of teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of medical sciences (24 hospitals). Journal of Medicine and Life, 11(4), 299-305. https://doi.org/10.25122/jml-2018-0046


In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the researcher aimed at determining the frequency type, and causes of medication n errors within the emergency and pediatric wards. According to the study, in emergency departments, medication errors mostly occurred in men that in women nurses. The number of medication errors was also higher during the night than during the day shifts. The study also identified the most common types of medication errors to include using the wrong technique to administer medication, administrating the wrong medication to the wrong patient, forgetting to administer the right dosage of the drug, additional duties during administration, and acting on the oral orders of the physicians. Concerning the clinical wards, the study found that the most common causes of medication errors included shortage of manpower and high workload, the use of sound-alike or look-alike drugs, poor coding of medication, lack of appropriate dosage forms for children and nurses lacking adequate training regarding drug therapy. The rationale for selecting the study is that it creates staff awareness of the significance of time, location, and training for nurses to prevent errors. 


Marufu, T. C., Bower, R., Hendron, E., & Manning, J. C. (2022). Nursing interventions to reduce medication errors in pediatrics and neonates: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 62, e139-e147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2021.08.024


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This literature review study identified nursing interventions to reduce medication administration errors since medication errors are a great concern to healthcare organizations. Medication errors also lead to the high cost of treatment and litigation for hospitals. The study indicates that children were three times more likely to be affected by medication errors than adults. This study also identified seven interventions from the selected literature and including medication information services, educational programs, double checking, involvement of clinical pharmacists, double checking,  implementation of smart pumps and improvement strategies, and having barriers to reduce interruption during the drug preparation and calculation. The rationale for selecting the study is that medication safety education is a very vital element regarding interventions to ensure a reduction of medication administration errors. The rationale for selecting the study is that it shows the relevance of medication safety education which is an important aspect of error prevention interventions. Medication errors are based on several factors and will call for a bundle of interventional approaches to ensure various dynamics are incorporated into the hospital context. 


Salar, A., Kiani, F., & Rezaee, N. (2020). Preventing the medication errors in hospitals: A qualitative study. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 13, 100235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijans.2020.100235


In this qualitative content analysis, the researcher aimed to identify ways of preventing medication errors in hospital wards. This is because one of the main nursing roles is to administer medication in hospital wards. Unfortunately, this is one of the areas where medication errors occur among nurses leading to negative results for patients. During the study, the researcher analyzed 16 nurses and 1 physician, where the participants were selected through purposive samples and data collected through interviews. From the study, two themes extracted included the prevention of medication errors through acting professionally and the presentation of technical strategies. The rationale for selecting the study was to explain why errors happen, where the researcher informs that errors can be prevented when nurses act professionally and that hospitals have put in place control systems like accreditation. This includes defining a clear role of nurses, which includes ensuring the right coding of medication, and ensuring naming and organization of medication is done well. While also new nurses administer medication under supervision. 

Schneidereith, T. (2017). Nursing students and medication errors: Why don’t they question? Creative Nursing, 23(4), 271-276. https://doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.23.4.271


This article focuses on approaches that hospitals use to reduce the rates of medication errors that continue to impact hospitalized patients. Among the factors identified in the article include simulation which provides nursing students with a safe opportunity to ensure hands-on administration of medication, healthcare education, and simulation which provides student opportunity to learn about administration. Other approaches include the calculation of medication dosage. The study also identified the tendency of nursing practitioners to overlook safety checks whenever they administer medications. Other internal and external factors can be put in place to increase the level of medication safety like the use of electronic references which can ensure nurses know whom, how, and when to administer medication. The rationale for selecting this article is that it recognizes how medication errors and comes up with suggestions on how nurses can overcome the barriers which inhibit questioning. The study also shows the importance of teaching nursing students how to come up with questions and when to ask regarding a situation where they are required to administer medication. 


Schroers, G., Ross, J. G., & Moriarty, H. (2021). Nurses’ perceived causes of medication administration errors: A qualitative systematic review. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 47(1), 38-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.09.010



In this systematic literature review study, the researcher investigated medication error as the responsibility of nurses, since medication administration errors were critical to the safety of patients. According to the study, the perception of nurses during medication administration can lead establish important guidance for the development of the interventions and ensure mitigation against errors. According to the results of the study, there was a lack of primary knowledge regarding various types of medication by nurses. Individual factors also include complacency and fatigue. Where contextual factors included heavy workloads and interruptions. In all studies reviewed, contextual factors were also reported as being connected to personal and individual knowledge-based factors. The rationale for selecting the study is that it shows that the causes of medication administration errors as being caused by multifactorial and interconnectedness factors which stem from systems-related issues. Also, the multifactorial interventions required for mitigating medication errors were very important to ensure changes in medication administration. With such findings, the study can help identify and modify factors leading to medication administration errors. 

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