Introduction


Wearable devices have gradually become more common. The Healthcare system is very overloaded, requiring more human resources to be involved in processes. Healthcare costs are also rising because of limited resources. To make patient care more effective, there should be increased involvement and education of patients. One way of patient involvement in the use of wearable devices. This paper provides four peer-reviewed articles related to wearable devices with regards to their ability to increase efficiency and improve patient outcomes.


Annotated Bibliography


Filippo Piccinini, Giovanni Martinelli, & Antonella Carbonaro. (2020). Accuracy of Mobile
Applications versus Wearable Devices in Long-Term Step Measurements. Sensors, 20(6293), 6293. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/s20216293
Piccinni, Martinelli, and Carbonaro (2020) note that fitness sensors and health systems are technologies that lead healthcare to a high quality of medical care. The market offers a wide range of wearable devices and health trackers, each having benefits and drawbacks. In their research, the authors mimicked a user interested in the installation of a fitness tracking application. Six phone-based fitness tracking applications and three wearable fitness trackers are tested. The authors evaluate each application based on tracker accuracy and precision. For measuring accuracy, three operates wore the device and walked approximately 1200 steps. Both fitness wristbands and smartphone-based apps resulted in the same number of steps, except only one smartphone-based application. For estimating precision, a 60-day experiment was conducted. The result was that steps recorded by phone-based apps were less precise compared to fitness wristbands. The logical lesson learned from this article is that wristbands are more effective and precise compared to smartphone applications, which means that patients should be recommended to use wristbands. Smartphone apps are unreliable because people do not take their smartphones every place they go, thus missing data. At the same time, the authors highlight many problems related to wearable devices, such as design, water resistance, and comfort. For instance, when swimming or working in the garden, the device can absorb water and break down. To ensure maximum efficiency, it is required to make sure that the devices are comfortable and durable for patients.


Huang, P.-C., Lin, C.-C., Wang, Y.-H., & Hsieh, H.-J. (2019). Development of Health


Care System Based on Wearable Devices. 2019 Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Paris), Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Paris), 2019, PHM-PARIS, 249–252. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1109/PHM-Paris.2019.00049
The population is now aging, which increases the need for healthcare services in all countries. For decreasing the burden on the healthcare system, costs as well as to improve the care quality, the healthcare providers consider technology as a solution. Huang et al (2019) note that wearable devices and care notification systems are one of the most promising technological trends in healthcare. These devices can include but are not limited to smart clothing, watches, and body devices. The experiment of this article was conducted in a long-term elderly care institution in Taiwan. The organization involves two segments of customers. The first group has a chronic disease, such as high blood sugar or blood pressure. The other group is patients diagnosed with dementia. The number of steps per day and sleep efficiency are collected for the experiment. The data provides the frequency, most frequent times, and locations of abnormal events. For example, the majority of abnormal events happen between 8AM and 10AM. The implication is that wearable devices can help to be informed about the abnormal event and address the event immediately. Without these wearable devices, a patient can experience a problem and the nurse may not be there to assist. Thus, wearable devices enable healthcare providers to continuously track patient health factors and receive notifications in case of an abnormal event. This system enables a decrease in errors as well as improvement in patient outcomes.


Simblett, S. K., Biondi, A., Bruno, E., Ballard, D., Stoneman, A., Lees, S., Richardson, M. P., &


Wykes, T. (2020). Patients’ experience of wearing multimodal sensor devices intended to detect epileptic seizures: A qualitative analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior, 102. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106717
Patients with epilepsy have frequent seizures, the detection of which is very needed. The authors note that while previous studies collected data on hypothetical devices, very few examined the experience of wearing actual devices. This research assessed first-hand experiences of patients with epilepsy, as the authors aimed to understand the accessibility and easiness of using devices. The research participants were asked to wear biosensor devices that detect seizures. After a certain time, 21 participants participated n semi-structured interviews about their experiences. The interviews generated important insights, such as they considered wearing the device as convenient and not disturbing. However, some of them experienced a problem with the big size and need for support. The use of devices depends on patients’ perceived accuracy. Overall, using devices to detect seizures is quite effective and allows staff members to have a proactive response when a seizure occurs. Also, these devices can be used in the homes of patients, thus making processes more effective. For example, early detection of seizure will enable a family owner to have more time on deciding how to react.
Vesnic-Alujevic, L., Breitegger, M. & Guimarães Pereira, Â. ‘Do-It-Yourself’

Healthcare? Quality of Health and Healthcare Through Wearable Sensors. Sci Eng Ethics. 24, 887–904 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-016-9771-4


Vesnic-Alujevic, Breitegger, and Guimarães Pereira (2018) discuss information technologies and their likelihood of improving quality and efficiency of care. The focus of the journal article is on wearable sensors, which have become a part of the new telemedicine concept. Wearable sensors can support improving patient care outcomes in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients, as it transforms the roles of healthcare provides and patients. The article begins with a literature review of wearable sensors, having a particular concentration on technologies and healthcare policies. It then discusses self-tracking issues, particularly related to quality. While self-tracking allows to systematically record and analyze health information, there is still a lot of room for improvement to increase the quality of wearable devices. To examine quality issues, the authors discuss knowledge assessment of online communities called Fitbit and Quantified Self forums. The users wear self-tracking devices and in these communities, they discuss issues related to their devices, including both technical and non-technical problems. In general, wearable sensors turn out to be very attractive for users, as they enjoy the “do-it-yourself” concept at the same time saving on healthcare expenses. Policymakers and other stakeholders also aim to support the usage of self-regulated devices, because they also consider that the cost and burden of healthcare can decrease only when patients have more involvement in their care. One of the major lessons learned is that along with the provision of wearable devices, healthcare providers should create an environment in which people can engage in the discussion of issues. The patients are open to self-regulating opportunities, however, they will need regular support to maximize the effectiveness of wearable devices. For example, there can be an integral forum for all patients to report on problems and receive assistance.


Conclusion


All four articles consider wearable devices as a viable solution to meeting healthcare needs. They can help to track and monitor patient health both in hospitals and outside of hospitals, thus sending notifications to patient care providers or family members. One of the outcomes will be improved care quality because of early detection and intervention. In addition, healthcare providers can become more efficient due to remote monitoring. The major lesson learned from all articles is that the devices should still be developed and adjusted to patient needs. The devices need to be small, water resistant and convenient.

References
Filippo Piccinini, Giovanni Martinelli, & Antonella Carbonaro. (2020). Accuracy of Mobile
Applications versus Wearable Devices in Long-Term Step Measurements. Sensors, 20(6293), 6293. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/s20216293
Huang, P.-C., Lin, C.-C., Wang, Y.-H., & Hsieh, H.-J. (2019). Development of Health
Care System Based on Wearable Devices. 2019 Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Paris), Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Paris), 2019, PHM-PARIS, 249–252. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1109/PHM-Paris.2019.00049
Simblett, S. K., Biondi, A., Bruno, E., Ballard, D., Stoneman, A., Lees, S., Richardson, M. P., &
Wykes, T. (2020). Patients’ experience of wearing multimodal sensor devices intended to detect epileptic seizures: A qualitative analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior, 102. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106717
Vesnic-Alujevic, L., Breitegger, M. & Guimarães Pereira, Â. ‘Do-It-Yourself’
Healthcare? Quality of Health and Healthcare Through Wearable Sensors. Sci Eng Ethics. 24, 887–904 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-016-9771-4

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