WEEK 4: ENLIGHTENMENT AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

 

Given the information from this week's reading on the Enlightenment, the New Rationalism, and the Scientific Revolution, how did advancements in science and reasoning change the lives of people at this time? In addition, what effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the world. 

The Enlightenment is a philosophical and literary movement in Europe during the 18th century. The philosophers of the time argued against prejudice, intolerance and promoted reason to make mankind progress towards happiness, liberty and knowledge.

The major themes of the Enlightenment were:

Jayanthi,

  • There certainly are parallels between the original Industrial Revolution and the present time; in particular, our desire to find the fastest, least expensive and overall best way to create and accomplish things. According to Kuruczleki, Pelle, Laczi and Fekete (2016), many economists believe that the fourth Industrial Revolution will soon be upon us. They explain that the fourth Industrial revolution is characterized by: Internet access that is widespread and broadly accessible; artificial intelligence; cheaper, more powerful sensors, and machine learning. Although such technologies did not exist during the first industrial revolution, the underlying reasons for making progress in industry remain the same.

    Reference

    Kuruczleki, E., Pelle, A., Laczi, R., & Fekete, B. (2016). The readiness of the European Union to embrace the fourth industrial revolution. Management (18544223), 11(4), 327-347.

     
    Hello Jayanthi,

    Great post The enlightenment period was a time of change to independent thinking and following reason. I think that this would be an interesting time to live. I would think that it would be similar to modern times. Our text states Enlightenment period in England and France thought of themselves as the guiding lights of a new era of change that would leave behind the irrationality, superstition and tyranny that had defined Western culture (Sayre, 2013).

    Thanks for sharing!

    References

    Sayre, H. M. (2013). Discovering the humanities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

     Hello Joyanthi,

    Very good post! The enlightenment stage was a major changing point of the society and the nations at that moment in time.  As you have stated, the enlightenment period brought about inventions and discoveries that were meant to increase human life. it is interesting to note that the enlightenment period laid the foundation for major scientific breakthroughs and also played a very significant role in the emergence of the industrial revolution and the scientific period that gave rise to many scientific inventions. This period has played a very significant role in the way that people live and interact with technology. However, this period gave rise to the best minds of science such Galileo Galilei.

     
     
    • Social and political contestation – Eighteen century monarch had absolute power which also was hereditary. After the death of Louis xiv, philosopher began to question political authority denounce social inequality.
    • Battle against injustice and ignorance – Writers and philosophers urged individual and collective liberty specially freedom of expression.
    • Hostility to slavery – The Enlightenment philosopher rejected the idea that man enslave their fellow man.
    • Denunciation of religious fanaticism – Some writers denounce obscurantism and clergy privileges.
    • Some of the major philosophers of the Enlightenment were: Beaumarchais, D’Alembert, Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire. 

     Reference:

    1. http://www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/enlightenment
    2. Sayre, H. (2013) Discovering the Humanities 2nd Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson

                                                      

     

    Thank you, Barbara for your thoughtful and insightful take on the major themes of the Enlightenment.

    I agree that many themes and ideals instituted during the Enlightenment period are still prevalent and continue to be challenged in our current political climate. We owe the great philosophers of that time for creating a platform to initiate change. Change is perpetual and our society has adjusted accordingly to accommodate new innovations and oppositions.

     
     Professor and Class, 

    In this time ‘enlightenment’ was meaning to creating change. After the great fire the need for restructuring became imminent, and although architect Christopher wren’s proposal was impractical and not carried out changes did emerge, such as wood construction being banned and the use of brick and stone for building was made a requirement. The enlightenment changed the approach to scientific inquiry, instead of repeating what was the norm they used the knowledge to go through and create their own discovery. The advancements in science and reasoning did not immediately affect the common people at this time however it did create universities and paved the way for later changes and improved life of the villagers.  The Scientific revolution created the industrial revolution which then completely changed the structure of life. Villages turned into cities, farmers moved into industrial work and modern child labor was initiated. Things we take for granted today as simple everyday necessities were invented such as buckles and forks. It truly was a massive shift and change in production and consumption of common goods.

    Katie Lowran

    Sayre, H. M. (08/2012). Discovering the Humanities, 2/e VitalSource for DeVry University. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781256884774/

     Hi Katie,

    Great post and realistic interpretation of the that time period. The long 18th century as it became to be known as a part of a movement known to by its members as a time of reason. It was a time where there is a reorientation of people to politics, philosophy, and science (History, 2009). This movement allowed individuals from across Europe to question how things are as opposed to following and along. It allowed them to understand that some issues that affect humans could improve through real change. As mentioned by History (2009) “The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars, and revolutions.” (para 1).

    Reference

    History.com (2009). Enlightenment. A&E Networks. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/enlightenmenthttp

     Katie,

    I really enjoyed your post. I found it to be quite educational. After the great fire in England there was a need to rebuild. They made the right choice to ban wood and use brick and stone. This rebuilding also affected slavery in the united states because the rebuilding created jobs for the people of England which led to less indentured servants going to the United States. I agree that the effects from advancements in science did not happen right away. The start of universities helped to change and improve everyday lives. The industrial revolution made some of the richest people the world has ever seen. This time in history really changed the way people lived. You are right when you say we take things for granted. You mention simple things like forks and buckles, I am thinking of indoor plumbing and transportation. Great post!

     Tom

    Hi Katie,

    That was a great post. I think you captured exactly what those philosophers had in mind. They wanted to create change and bring about new and innovate ways of doing things and they succeeded. Because of that time period, we are able to do what we are doing at this very moment. They wanted us to open our minds to new possibilities and new beginnings.

     Hello Katie,

    Enlightenment indeed is the initiator of the change that took the world by a storm. It made people lot more independent in terms of thinking, studying and believing. The Rationalism taught people to take knowledge by empirical methods and thus eliminating all the scope of speculation and blind following. The Scientific movement brought in plenty of discoveries and inventions that further gave rise to the industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution saw a massive change in the socio-economic structure of the world. Apart from the accessible goods and employment it also gave rise to social vices like child labour.

      Hello Lowran,

    Nice post! I concur with you that living in this time were very interesting if not overwhelming. This period of time opened up new psychological boundaries and pushed the boundaries of imagination due to the numerous inventions that challenged the status quo. Many of the beliefs that people had were changed during this time and it impacted the lives of almost everyone especially due to the scientific inventions that was achieved and the industrial revolution that followed. There was too much knowledge at this moment in time and this knowledge revolutionized the world and how people were doing things. The enlightenment period is the foundation of modern day industry and civilization.

     Jean, 

    Thank you for your response, I like the way you reference that this time was used as a reorientation, and how it allowed individuals to question things and re look at them. We see this often throughout time and continue on still today. Many will say you need to learn from history as to not repeat it, so looking back even at yesterday as a form of history, lets reflect on what worked and did not and move forward with changes. I feel this is a very open minded and optimistic way of life and love that even so long ago they were able to be rebels in a sense and reflect on how changes could better them as a culture. 

    Katie

    Tom and Katie,

    It also is evident that "revolutionary" events, like the Industrial Revolution, are influenced still by the creator's heart and soul. Knowledge is powerful, science is as well, but there seem to be personal touches to things. A personal touch; the meaningful spiritual part of us (whether we acknowledge that or not) comes through in some way or another. I believe to be created in the image of God (this is Biblical). I believe He is why we feel the need to create because He is the greatest creator, thus instilling in us the need to create or in other words "revolutionalize" the world we live in.

    Thank you, class mates,

    Ruth

     Good Evening Professor and Class,

              The Enlightenment period in history is a very important time when there was an extensive intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. The Scientific Revolution, which was stated as in 1500 opened a way for independent thought, mathematics, astronomy, physics, politics, economics, philosophy, and medicine fields were under constant change.

               The period of enlightenment prompted a beginning of the Industrial Revolution which has resulted in the migration of people from villages to cities. New job opportunities. Political, social, arts, music and philosophical changes were taken place. Self-aware society started to form. Europeans started to blame that the enlightenment breaking the tradition and social norms.  According to Sayre, H.M. 2012,  “the industrial revolution is the term used to describe the radical changes in production and consumption that had transformed the world”. (p. 351). They found new and quicker ways of making things. They were continually looking for ways to make more at a quicker pace and with less work. This is the same as we do now, always trying to improve the way we are currently doing something. 

    Reference

    Sayre, H. M. (08/2012). Discovering the Humanities, 2/e VitalSource for DeVry University. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781256884774/ (Links to an external site.)

     Khanacademy retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/renaissance-and-reformation/scientific-revolution-enlightenment/v/the-scientific-revolution-and-the-age-of-enlightenment-world-history-khan-academy

     Jayanthi, I enjoyed reading your post. I too agree that the Enlightenment period is similar to our present day structure. It seems as if we strive to make everything better in life. I feel there are healthy ways we are doing this, like exercising and choosing healthier food. Technology is constantly changing today as well. There is always a new phone coming out or a medical study being done to gain better information. 

 
Professor and class,

The English Enlightnment came about after the great fire of london on September 2, 1666 where “about 100,000 Londoners were left homeless. Eighty-seven churches had burned. Businesses, particularly along the busy wharves on the north side of the Thames, were bankrupted. Further taking into account the Great Plague that had killed some 70,000 Londoners just the year before, John Evelyn, one of the other great chroniclers of the age, summed up the situation in what amounts to typical British understatement: “London was, but is no more.”  This brought way for the enlightenment which started with new improvements being made for the rebuilding of the city. “Wood construction was largely banned; brick and stone were required. New sewage systems were introduced, and streets had to be at least 14 feet wide. Just a year after the fire, in a poem celebrating the devastation and reconstruction, “Annus Mirabilis” (“year of wonders”), the poet John Dryden (1631–1700) would equate London to the mythological Phoenix rising from its own ashes, reborn: “a wonder to all years and Ages . . . a Phoenix in her ashes.” Moved by the speed of the city’s rebuilding, Dryden is sublimely confident in London’s future. Under the rule of Charles II, the city would become even greater than before.” Intellectuals began to advocate rational thinking as the means to achieving a comprehensive system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge. The rationalist approach owed much to scientist Isaac Newton (1642–1727), who in 1687 demonstrated to the satisfaction of just about everyone that the universe was an intelligible system, well-ordered in its operations and guiding principles. The workings of human society—the production and consumption of manufactured goods, the social organization of families and towns, the functions of national governments, even the arts—were believed to be governed by analogous universal laws. The intellectuals of Enlightenment England and France thought of themselves as the guiding lights of a new era of progress that would leave behind, once and for all, the irrationality, superstition, and tyranny that had defined Western culture, particularly before the Renaissance. Still, recognizing that society was deeply flawed, they also satirized it, attacking especially an aristocracy whose taste for elaborate ornamentation and the seemingly frivolous pursuit of pleasure seemed to many not just decadent but depraved. At the same time, an expanding publishing industry and an increasingly literate public offered Enlightenment writers the opportunity to instruct their readers in moral behavior, even as they described vice in often prurient detail. And in music, the intricate and sometimes confusing compositions of the Baroque gave way to a more rational, and classical, form and structure.

 Sayre, H. M. (08/2012). Discovering the Humanities, 2/e VitalSource for DeVry University. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781256884774/

 The Enlightenment was a range of ideas and known as the Age of Reasoning. The thinkers in France, Britain and Europe believed humanity could be improved through rational change. They questioned traditional authority. During this time an abundant of books, essays, inventions and scientific discoveries were developed.

Isaac Newton was the son of farmer. The falling of an apple encouraged his work on gravity and in 1668 developed a telescope. He focused his studies on theories on light and color, calculus and celestial mechanics. He received his Masters of Arts degree and became Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.

John Locke was trained in medicine and wrote an essay, “Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” His idea was to protect, “life, liberty and estate” and influenced the U. S’s founding documents. His essays on religion separated church and state.

Galileo Galilei work was in physics, natural philosophy, astronomy and methodology of science. He played a key role in the history of science. He was also a mathematician. He is known for many things but discovered massive moons of Jupiter and is now known as the Galilean moons.

Johannes Kepler was a mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He made discoveries by abandoning principles that had been in place for millennia. He discovered the three laws of planetary motion and was a key development in scientific revolution.

“The Enlightenment has also been accused of being the exclusive concern of a small coterie of intellectuals scattered across Europe.” (The Enlightenment: And Why it still Matters, p. 119)

“But all history, if it is to be anything more than mere archaeology, must be a reflection of what the present owes to the past.” (The Enlightenment: And Why it still Matters, p.158)

 References:

Pagden, Anthony. (2013). THE ENLIGHTENMENT: AND WHY IT STILL MATTERS.

 
 Hello Professor and Class,
  • The Enlightenment recognized the concerns of the working class. There was a shift in power to the middle class. Artists and philosophers embraced this shift. Prior to this shift art focused on the wealthy. It focused on palaces and powers created by wealth. The Age of Enlightenment came after the Great Fire in London. Everything was destroyed. Londoners without homes and businesses were bankrupt. John Evelyn Stated, “London was, but no more” (Sayre, 2013). The city was rebuilt but not the same as before. Isaac Newton was credited for much of the new approach. The houses were smaller and the church towers were the tallest structures. A group was developed due to the observations of Bacon and still exists today. The group was called The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. Today it is known as The Royal Society. During the Age of Enlightenment the telescope was improved, mathematics were developed with algebra, geometry and calculus. These developments are credited to Descartes. Rational empirical thinking dominated the Western area and it was not linked to religion.

    The Industrial Revolution create an increase in wealth for people. Factories and machines were being built. This allowed for mass production of goods that were in demand. Textiles were in high demand. Many advances were made in the textile manufacturing industry. The industrial Revolution was a period in which many inventions were developed and created.

    The painting that I posted below is by Joseph Wright of Derby’s. It is titled A Philosopher Giving A Lecture At The Orrery (17

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