Reducing the incidence of Clostridium difficile


Introduction
Health education involves creating awareness on health matters. Its aim is to enhance health promotion and also facilitate patient education. It helps in influencing the targeted people to adopt healthy living practices, guiding them on the available health services and how they should utilize them and also helps in encouraging the society as a whole to participate in health programs. Health education, therefore, promotes healthy living. It is hindered by the inadequacy of resources to offer training to educators and incorporation from society.My primary focus would be to attest whether there was any change in behavior. For the way, patients were behaving before I delivered education and after.

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SHAPE America produced the SHAPE America Guidance Document whose main aim was to provide guidelines to the education sector to provide quality training on health education. (Morrison, 2008). Some of the contents of the document are encouraged school heads to ensure that the learning environment of their students is conducive, and they trigger them to gain skills to enable them to live healthily. They should also monitor the improvement of their students’ skills in health education.
Health education came into existence in the 1930s after the realization that health programs alone were not sufficient in improving the health conditions of the people. This is because the public need to be involved by firstly being informed on the programs for them to offer their support. People were therefore required to help spread information about these policies to improve the health of the public.
Those who were selected to spread this information were offered training on how to deal with the people’s response, providing information, and coordinating the training(Minkler, 1989). Nowadays, health education is offered by both the public and private sectors. The duties of the health education providers have been diversified as compared to earlier years where their major role was to keep people familiarized about health programs. They take part in health planning and researching on health problems, among other duties.

Literature review
Goesling, B. (2007). The rising significance of education for health. Social Forces, 85(4), 1621-1644. This article relates the size of the educational gap to health standards. This is because health education is more easily accessible and understood by those who are learned. According to the data collected by the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), young people have a narrow gap of health conditions as compared to the old. Health education, therefore, improves one's knowledge. In addition, the author claims that research was conducted among children who had inflammatory bowel disease and those without, and it indicated the microbiome changes. The researcher has concluded that the fecal microbiota transplantation is effective in treating the recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. What happens after the fecal microbiota transplantation is that there is an increased bacterial diversity, although, after six months of using this intervention, the microbial diversity is reduced.

Reducing the incidence of Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile is a bacteria which causes diarrhea and colitis. Colitis refers to an inflammation that occurs in the colon, while diarrhea refers to a loose, watery stool. It is a common nosocomial pathogenthat affects mostly the elderly and the children. Some studies show that about half a million illnesses that occur in the United States every year. The individuals who get the disease will get it again and again, and it is estimated that 1 in 5 patients will have a relapse. There has a burden of this disease in the United States (Olsen et al., 2016). The findings that were able to be established from the control disease infection ranges from 66 in 100,000 from LabRx, 383 in 100,000 from SID and 67 in 100,000 from Medicare and this is statistics among the elderly people. The increasing incidences that are occurring give an advanced nurse practice to do more research about the prevalence and come up with strategies of dealing with the problem.
According to Suskind et al. (2019) found out that diet modification to reduce the colonization of Clostridium difficile. When the food that is being taken is well managed, then these bacteria will be significantly reduced in the body. This involves some modification in the specific carbohydrate diet and the nutrition that should be taken. This is one of the strategies that can be used to eradicate Clostridium difficile.
Another strategy that has been used is the single fecal microbiota transplantation (Houring et al., 2015). The research was conducted among children who had inflammatory bowel disease and those without, and it indicated the microbiome changes. The researcher has concluded that the fecal microbiota transplantation is effective in treating the recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. What happens after the fecal microbiota transplantation is that there is an increased bacterial diversity, although, after six months of using this intervention, the microbial diversity is reduced.
Another strategy that can be used in reducing the incidences of the Clostridium difficile involves the modification of the environment (Connor et al., 2017). This bacteria is a spore-forming, and hence, when they are exposed to the cold plasma, they become inactivated. Environmental factors have an effect on the plasma activity, and those with dry spores without the presence of organic matter are the ones that are the most affected. The study that was conducted in the mice shows that cold atmospheric plasma is effective in inactivating clostridium difficile spores and the factors that are capable of affecting the sporicidal activity.
As an advanced nurse practice, I will choose diet therapy in reducing the incidences of Clostridium difficile. The main reason why I would choose this is that the food that is being introduced is friendly bacteria, commonly known as the probiotics. This will facilitate an increase in the number of bacteria in the gut and prevent any regrowth that can occur. This includes food such as yogurt and miso. They contain live cultures. The diet may also include the menu high in soluble fiber such as oats, beans, carrots, and strawberries.
Advanced nurses have the responsibility of educating the patients on their health matters. This helps the patient to understand what they are required to do. There are various strategies to be put in place. Firstly, they should involve their patient’s family in giving out instructions and any other relevant information that is essential to the patients and also in making important decisions (Krishna, 2017).The family would then help the patient fully comprehend it.
Secondly, the nurse should use the available technology appropriately especially in obtaining information that the patient may need in the course of treatment and after treatment (Lewis, 2013)
. This is because online sources have a variety of information health care. Thirdly, the nurse should consider the patient’s capabilities and inabilities. This is in terms of the patient’s physicality. For example, if the patient has hearing problems which hinder the understanding of instructions, the nurse should provide hearing aids. the nurse need to have a good understanding of the patient’s preferred mode of learning. This will enable the patient to understand better. The patient should also be given chances to showcase what he or she has learned. Finally, the nurse should capture and retain the patient’s attention and also develop a mutual relationship where the patient feels free to ask and get answered faster and openly.
Dietary modification is the most straightforward and easy way of reducing the incidences that are existing. This is less harmful to the patient because it does have side effects as compared with the other strategies. Hence this means that the patient's life is not being endangered. Convincing people to use this is easier because it involves just some little adjustment in the lifestyle, and they will find it easy to adapt. If the people especially the elderly and children, can adhere to this, then there will be reduced incidences. The physiologic functions of the gastrointestinal system in children have not been well-formed, and the elderly have diminished physiologic functions in their digestive system.
During the implementation phase as an advanced nurse practice, I will do the following activities. The first thing is to planning how I will conduct my implementation and where it should be done and the target population I am aiming at the cases that are there. Once I have planned adequately, I will provide health education to parents and caregivers of both the elderly and the children in the hospital setting and by conducting a campaign through the social media platform. This will inform them about the cause of inflammatory bowel disease and its prevention measures. I will make emphasis on the use of various diets such as yogurt and beans as part of their food so that they can eradicate the colonization of the bacterium in their body system. I will also advise them on the benefits of this strategy I am implementing compared to other strategies that are available so that even if they want to change their minds about the strategy, they can use they can do that. Patients and families need all the information, and in case there is inadequate information, it will be hard for them to use the method.

The relevance of health education to Advanced Practise Nursing
Advanced Practise Nurses promote health education. They also apply health education skills in performing their duties like in offering to counsel to the patients or their families, researching on their patients and also while determining the response of the patient to medication.

Strategies to resolve problems in health education by advanced nurses
Advanced nurses have the responsibility of educating the patients on their health matters. This helps the patient to understand what they are required to do. There are various strategies to be put in place. Firstly, they should involve their patient’s family in giving out instructions and any other relevant information that is essential to the patients and also in making important decisions (Krishna, 2017).The family would then help the patient fully comprehend it. It helps in influencing the targeted people to adopt healthy living practices, guiding them on the available health services and how they should utilize them and also helps in encouraging the society as a whole to participate in health programs. Health education, therefore, promotes healthy living. It is hindered by the inadequacy of resources to offer training to the educators and incorporation from society.
Secondly, the nurse should use the available technology appropriately especially in obtaining information that the patient may need in the course of treatment and after treatment (Lewis, 2003). This is because online sources have a variety of information health care. Thirdly, the nurse should consider the patient’s capabilities and inabilities. This is in terms of the patient’s physicality. For example, if the patient has hearing problems which hinder the understanding of instructions, the nurse should provide hearing aids.
Fourthly, the nurse needs to understand the patient’s preferred mode of learning. This will enable the patient to understand better. The patient should also be given chances to showcase what he or she has learned. Finally, the nurse should capture and retain the patient’s attention and also develop a mutual relationship where the patient feels free to ask and get answered faster and openly (Lippincott, 2017).
Involvement of the patient’s family educating the patient Family is essential in educating the patient. This is because family members may act as the link between the patient and the nurse especially where there is a cultural difference like language barrier between the nurse and the patient. The family can also help in convincing the patient following making decisions. Involvement of the family, therefore, is of great advantage. The family also needs the education because they are the ones to take over the looking after of the patient after being discharged.
Theoretically, I base my case topic under the self-efficiency model as it states that the patient is confident when other people are around him or her. When the patient has gained confidence, he begins to make his own decisions and also the mastery of the skills taught by the advanced nurse. The patient should, therefore, be encouraged throughout this stage of developing their self-confidence. The family has to find a better way of supporting the patient. This contributes to early recovery. In order to ensure that my patients’ families support them, I will consider the below procedure:
Step one: Ensuring that each of the admitted patient’s next of kin contact is available so that in case of any demand from, the patient it would be easier.
Step two: Developing a mutual relationship with the patient’s family. This will facilitate a much deeper understanding of my patient. It will also create room for open conversations.
Step three: Educating and encouraging the family starts visiting the patient more often while the patient is still under my watch. I will also try to create more time to spend with my patients.
Step four: Discharging the patient with prescribed information is well elaborated for him or her.
I will also urge the management of my employing health facility to ensure that the health facility has adequate infrastructure to enhance the welfare of the admitted patients. The visiting hours should be extended by an extra hour so that patients can have adequate time with their families and close friends.

Outcome Evaluation Strategy
I will use experimental, quasi-experimental and observational methods to evaluate the effectiveness of my strategic focus. Experimentally I compared the behavior of the people I was offering health education before I began providing training to them and after. My primary focus would be to attest whether there was any change in behavior. For the way, patients were behaving before I delivered education and after.
By using the quasi-experimental method, I would investigate like three patients whom I attended, and I played a crucial role in advising them to come and see their patient. I would aim at seeking information on how my advice on them impacted them. If they came back more often to see the patient than before, then I would know that I was successful, but if otherwise, then I would have failed.
By observation, I would be visiting my patients more randomly to find out how they are doing and their state to determine if they have been visited as I had advised or communicated with the family. If the patient would be in an excellent psychological state and the family has visited, then I would have been useful.Once I have implemented my strategy, I will have to evaluate its effectiveness. This can be done by collecting data after a certain period like six months from the hospital and the individual cases in the community about the incidences and record them in a data sheet. Once I had obtained this type of data, I will be able to compare with the previous information that had been collected before I implemented the strategy. If the results that have been obtained show that the current incidences are lesser as compared to the old data, then this is an indicator that the strategy that I have implemented is valid because it can measure what it was intended to measure. The data obtained can be reliable if the measure that can be achieved is consistent with the previous data that had been recorded. Through the use of a graph, therefore, can tell more about validity and reliability, which is essential in evaluating the strategy that was implemented.
Conclusively, Health education is an essential aspect of helping in improving the health standards of the society. Each member of the society should, therefore, take part. In addition, The family can also help in convincing the patient following making decisions. Involvement of the family, therefore, is of great advantage. The family also needs the education because they are the ones to take over the looking after of the patient after being discharged. It also helps in influencing the targeted people to adopt healthy living practices, guiding them on the available health services and how they should utilize them and also helps in encouraging the society as a whole to participate in health programs. Health education, therefore, promotes healthy living. It is hindered by the inadequacy of resources to offer training to the educators and incorporation from society. Finally, health education has remained to be essential in improving the heath situation in any given nation. This has been done through educating people on importance of health to them.

References


1. Connor, M., Flynn, P. B., Fairley, D. J., Marks, N., Manesiotis, P., Graham, W. G.,and McGrath, J. W. (2017). Evolutionary clade affects the resistance of Clostridium difficile spores to Cold Atmospheric Plasma. Scientific reports, 7, 41814.
2. Hourigan, S. K., Chen, L. A., Grigoryan, Z., Laroche, G., Weidner, M., Sears, C. L., and Oliva?Hemker, M. (2015). Microbiome changes associated with sustained eradication of Clostridium difficile after single fecal microbiota transplantation in children with and without inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology and therapeutics, 42(6), 741-752.
3. Krishna, J. Z. (2017). Clinical trials of interactive computerized patient education. Journal of Family practice, 25-33. 4. Lewis, D. (2013). Computers in patient education, CIN. Computers,Informatics,Nursing,21(2), 88-96.
5. Lippincott. (2017). Calling the shorts. Five strategies for providing effective patient educa\tio, 23-34.
6. Minkler, M. (2019). Health education, health promotion, and the open society: a historical approach. Health Education Quarterly, 17-30.
7. Morrison, F. J. (2008). Improving Literacy in America. Chicago: Yale University Press.
8. Suskind, D. L., Lee, D., Solan, P., Wahbeh, G., Hayden, H., Brittnacher, M., ... and Miller, S. (2019). Dietary therapy for Clostridium difficile colonization: A case series. Anaerobe, 57, 1-3.
9. Lippincott. (2017). Calling the shorts. Five strategies for providing effective patient educa\tio, 23-34.

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