NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations


Every individual in the United States deserves an opportunity to lead a healthy life. That fact is withstanding, diverse racial groups have worse health than other racial groups. Although the United States has witnessed huge advancement in both medical and technological field since gaining its independence, however, this has not been replicated in the country's efforts to guarantee people across all races equal opportunities for potential healthier and longer lives. Persistent and prevalent disparities related diverse racial and ethnic minority population continue to prevail and access to equal healthcare to people of all races remain elusive. Communities of diverse races systematically experience economic and social disparities that result in challenges in accessing optimal healthcare  (NCBI resources, 2006). The health inequalities refer to disparities in access to healthcare as a result of disadvantages in the environment, economic, and social settings of a particular race. Moreover, these disparities embrace aspects such as discrimination and exclusion on the basis of sexual identity, disabilities, mental wellbeing, gender orientation, geographical location, and age. One of the most prevalent ethnic minority group impacted by health disparities is Hispanic Americans. This review offers an in-depth inquiry on the subject of health disparities related to Hispanic Americans.

The health status of Hispanic Americans

Demographics linked to Hispanic Americans indicate that the group comprises of the 2nd largest populous ethnic minority group coming from an array of countries. 60% of the Hispanic population have their origin in Mexico, 18% from South and Central America, 15% from Puerto Rico, 6 % from Cuba, and 8% from the rest of Hispanic Nations  (The online journal of issues in nursing, 2012). This diversity of Hispanics origin is also reflected on their socio-economic scale regarding their immigration status and their disparities in acculturations levels. The 2000 United States' population census indicate that the Hispanic population had an approximate rise of 60% by steadily increasing from 23 million people in 1990 to 35.3 million people  (The online journal of issues in nursing, 2012). This increase was credited to improve fertility rates and high immigration levels from Latin America.  The status of Hispanic Americans health in the collective is on the scale is remarkably fair and is much nearer to the health status of the whites than that of the African Americans. This is despite the fact that the prevalence of poverty among the black and Hispanic populations is approximately similar. 

In 1999, the projected life expectancy among Hispanic men and women at birth was 75.1 and 82.6 years respectively  (The online journal of issues in nursing, 2012). The Hispanics' mortality rate is considerably good compared to that of non-Hispanic whites. However, disparities are emergent when this comparison is based on disease-linked mortalities with that of the Hispanics being significantly high. The social and economic status of the Hispanics are the main determinants of the groups' health situation. In the United States, the levels of income of the Hispanic is low compared to their non-Hispanic Whites counterparts. Besides, Hispanics experience a range of challenges in receiving optimal healthcare. These challenges are related to social, economic, and special aspects associated with the Hispanic population.

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Barriers to Access to optimal health care

Hispanic minorities experience the multiplicity of challenges related to economic and non-economic constraints in their pursuit of timely and optimal health care. Among these constraints; language, the status of their immigration, and the level of acculturation are the main determinants to accessing appropriate care  (NCBI resources, 2006). It is apparent that Hispanic immigrants who have immigrated to the United States in recent times are significantly isolated from the mainstream society. As a result, they face barriers in accessing healthcare since they are exceedingly unfamiliar with the existing systems of healthcare.

The challenge of English proficiency presents a significant hurdle to Hispanics in their search of information that relates to health reducing their chances of accessing health care. Proficiency in English directly impacts on individuals' chances of securing a job that can improve his/her financial ability. Moreover, the patient-provider relationship is greatly linked to communicative abilities and is directly credited with the procedure of delivery of healthcare. The challenge between the patient and the healthcare provider accounts for the varied delivery of healthcare in the form of possible instances where excessive medication is prescribed leading to adverse side effects, lack of comprehension on medical tests resulting in the wrong diagnosis, and inconsistent follow-up  (NCBI resources, 2006). Thus, communication challenges among the Hispanic population have impacted of health care disparities in the United States. 

Another major barrier refers to the unique sociopolitical feature of Hispanics who are undocumented. The sociopolitical status of the immigrants is a key determinant of their ability to access health care. Most Hispanic immigrants fail to easily obtain insurance cover that is essential to accessing affordable health care since most of them are undocumented.  This means that the uninsured Hispanics have to rely on health care that is out-of-pockets. However, with their extremely low incomes, it is difficult to maintain the usual source of care and thus choose to forgo health care  (NCBI resources, 2006). Furthermore, recent Hispanic immigrants who have been documented receive meager health benefits in comparison to existing programs that offer public health insurance.

Health promotion prevention for Hispanics

Health promotion prevention programs are essential in serving the disparities among the Hispanic population in the United States. These programs will be dictated by the legitimacy of the community in the primary approach and marketing strategies that target on promoting the community’s health awareness in both the tertiary and secondary approach category. The community must be taught to depart from certain lifestyle habits such as smoking and unhealthy eating through social marketing. This strategy should target in addressing the cultural and economic variations while also embracing on educating the community on health-related subjects. On community legitimacy, mechanisms that permit the Hispanic community to embrace community-based health programs should be established. The utilization of health professions from the Hispanic community will offer a representation in the health platform that is endowed with determining the goals of established health prevention programs  (Laguna, 2014). This approach would be effective since the community-allied professionals will effectively address the needs of the Hispanic community by being actively involved in making of health policies that advocate for the community wellbeing. Moreover, these professionals will effectively rely on health information to their community.


Laguna. (2014). Racial/ethnic variation in care preferences and care outcomes among United States hospice enrollees. California: University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 2014-08-12 2014-08-12.

NCBI resources. (2006). Hispanics and the Future of America. Retrieved from Hispanics and the Future of America.:

The online journal of issues in nursing. (2012). Race Consciousness and the Health of African Americans. Retrieved from Race Consciousness and the Health of African Americans:

Organizational Behavior and Culture in Management

Assessment of the impact of an organization's culture on organizational behavior

In assessing the effects of an organization's culture on organizational behavior, it is imperative to understand the context of an organization culture. Organizational culture implies a system of norms within an organization with distinctive characteristics that differentiates one organization from other organizations and that is shared among members of the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Every organization has its own culture that is defined by a set of norms that guides the organization's way of doing things. These norms, subject to their strengths, have an impact on the behaviors and attitudes of employees of the organization. An organizational culture can either be defined as strong or weak. A strong culture is characterized by wide acceptance of the organization's core values by most of the members within in an organization. Member's acceptance of the organization's core values shows that the culture impacts on the overall behavior within an organization.

One of the primary impacts of organization's culture is that dependent on its strength i.e., strong or weak, it reduces or increases employees turnover respectively. A strong culture indicates a strong understanding of the objectives of an organization among its members. Correspondingly, a weak culture in an organization demonstrates low levels of agreement among the members and thus increases employee's turnover (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Hence, an organization that has a strong culture builds on employee's behavior such as commitment, cohesiveness, and organizational loyalty.

The second impact of an organizational culture is related to its function in that it acts as a control mechanism and a goal-oriented guide in shaping the behavior and attitudes of the employees. In this context, an organization's culture influences the organization's selection behavior (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Most organizations are determined to select employees whose behavior and attitude are compatible with the organization's internalized culture.

Another impact that an organization's culture has on organizational behavior refers to the stability enhancement of the social unit among the members (Robbins & Judge, 2017). An organization's culture is responsible for creating a social climate within the organization which in turn influence on employees mode of association. A positive social attitude in an organization is credited with high levels of behavioral performances among the employees.

Lastly, an organization's culture is a determining aspect of the ethical climate of respective members within an organization. The ethical environment in an organization impacts on the manner in which the employees feel they should behave (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Employees' commitment and job satisfaction are influenced by the ethical culture established within the organization.

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Differences between leadership, power, and management

Power and leadership are distinctive but related concepts. Power in management is perceived to be the discipline that focuses on the directing and organizing employees, observing that the set standards are conformed to, and maintenance of the status quo in an organization. In any given organization, power is often associated with the manager who is given the authority to direct the activities rendered to employees and ensure that the employees respond appropriately with the aim of achieving the organization's objectives (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Managers are expected to apply a set of certain skills and methods in directing their employees in organizational tasks in a rational and a logical manner.

On the other hand, Leadership within a given organization specializes in setting objectives, making advancements on existing organizational structures, leading and motivating employees in the organization. Leadership is characterized by a set of unique behaviors that comprise such behaviors as sharing of the organization's vision, instituting change, empowering, leading, and establishing a conducive environment for employees' success (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Leadership is not dependent on specific skills that are attributed to an individual. Rather, it is interlinked by the mode of approach to a specific task and the relation of the leader builds with the employees he is tasked to lead. Some of the recognizable differences related to power and leadership are as outlined in the following paragraphs.

The first recognizable difference between leadership and power is that leadership is enforced using legal means and is a result of the positional level in an organization. In this context, leadership is, therefore, a practical effort in offering guidance on the direction of activities. Contrastingly, power is a characteristic of an individual and originates from social positioning and charisma. Thus, power is focused on control and rationality in directing an organization's goals, employees, structures, and resources in finding solutions to organization's challenges.

The second characteristic difference of the two aspects of management in an organization is based on their formality context (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Whereas leadership is observed to be formal in regarding the superior-subordinate relationship, power is observed to be informal while weighted on an individual understanding aspect.

Thirdly, power in an organization is observed to be associated with an individual. As a result, it is perceived to transcend boundaries within an organization. Contrastingly, leadership is correlated with a specific position in an organization and thus is confined to the structure within the organization and has limited scope (Robbins & Judge, 2017).

Additionally, leadership is equally applied within an organization whereas power is indiscriminately applied. Another characteristic difference related to power and leadership is that the latter is institutional and is structured for a specific position in an organization. The holder of the structure position enjoys the leadership privilege attached to that position. Distinctively, the former is not offered by an organization and is regarded as an individual awareness in influencing other member's decisions. It is said to be individually acquired. Overall, it is observed that in organizations there are multiple leadership centers whereas no power centers are observed in organization's structure (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Hence, power is unrelated to any position in an organization's structure since any individual in an organization regardless on the placement in the hierarchal structure can influencing decision making. Lastly, power is interlinked with politics within an organization whereas leadership bears no relation to politics.

The influence ethical issues, either good or bad, have on organizational behavior

Organizational ethics is an extension of organization's culture and refers to the expression of organizational values by an organization towards its employees and other entities devoid of regulatory or government laws. Ethics constitutes the mode within which members in an organization relate and behave in the process of achieving the organization's objectives. It defines the responsibility of any individual for enforcing morals amongst other members with the view of achieving foundations of the organization's success (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Ethical issues in an organization relate to the response to internal or external stimulus through conceptualized values. Four principal elements that include; a written code of standards, a system of confidential reporting, advice for an ethical situation, and a training program on for executives and employees define a conducive environment in an organization.

Relating to the ethical environment within an organization, ethical issues refer to the shared set of activities that define a collect behavior by members of the organization. Ethical issues can be defined by a range of issues such as professional codes and laws, efficiency in operations, self-interest, team interest, standard procedures and rules, personal and social responsibility, personal and social morality, and work-related friendship. Ethical issues may either be positive or negative as predisposed by the existing ethical climate within an organization. In negative ethical organizational environment or in cases where the ethical code and standards are unclear, unethical behavior is prevalent (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Thus by extension, organizational behavior that is not clearly defined can influence employees towards an unethical behavior. Some organizations, through selectively hire and promote employees whose personal values are consistent with their ethics.

A progressive set of ethics promotes a positive rapport among the employees which in turn promotes efficiency in the respective operations. Hence, positive ethics in an organization gives employees and the management to cooperate in organizational activities with a progressive attitude towards achieving the objectives of the organization. Positive ethical environment inspires the entire organization community to efficiently perform their duties. Most of the activities within an organization require teamwork and are only achievable if the organization's culture is stimulated by good ethics (Robbins & Judge, 2017).

Employee and management influences affect the ethical relation in the organization. Influences such as individual beliefs and attitudes impact on the ethical culture within the organization. For example, some members may feel that they are the most suited to provide ideas and decision and hence any other opinion by fellow members is absolute (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Some other members may relate to their counterparts in a superior –subordinate relation, an experience that constitutes bad ethics within the organization. In such circumstances, other members may feel disregarded and the experience may have a negative impact on their efficiency.


Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2017). Organizational behavior. Boston: Pearson.



The Future of Nursing

Work of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Committee Initiative (RWJF) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on the Future of Nursing 

The future of nursing is under the challenge of a multitude of health issues in the US and globally. The Joint Commission is pushing for higher quality of care and improving safety by endorsing national standards for nursing performance. The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators is tracking such quality in order to improve care. As countries such as United States introduce new health care reforms through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the need for improving the quality of healthcare, focusing on patient-centred care, and evidence-based practice is imperative to transforming our healthcare system. According to Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), there is significant benefits in strengthening the healthcare workforce such as the nurses in attempt to improve the quality of healthcare services.  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) noted that high-quality healthcare can only be achieved if nurses are involved in providing the exceptional nursing care, lifelong learning, expanded systems thinking, care management, care coordinating and leadership.  This report seeks to discuss the future of nursing as a critical component of quality healthcare.

The future of nursing is under the challenge of a plethora of health issues in the US and globally. As countries, such as the United States, introduce health care reforms, the need for improving the quality of healthcare becomes widely demanded across the globe. According to the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), there is significance in strengthening the healthcare workforce, including the nurses, in an attempt to improve the quality of healthcare services. As such, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) note that high-quality healthcare can only be achieved if nurses are involved in providing exceptional nursing care and leadership.  This report seeks to discuss the future of nursing as a critical component of quality healthcare.

As the world looks forward to high-quality healthcare services, nurses remain the pivotal workforce in achieving quality healthcare. Smolenski and Goudreau (2013) acknowledge that nurses have the task of ensuring commitment to patient care, patient safety and quality of the healthcare services. According to Hewitt (2016), the role of nurses in healthcare provision, such as coordination of care, promotion of health and improvement of the quality of health, is the main pillar of healthcare services; however, nurses have had challenges in areas such as care coordination, transitional care and prevention of hospital-acquired infections, as well as improvement of wellness. To this end, the IOM suggests that there is significance in modifying the nurses’ role with the aim of improving the healthcare outcomes. 

RWJF and IOM partnered in 2008 with the goal of transforming the nursing profession in order to diminish some of the nursing challenges that have been noted. According to the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), the transformation of the nursing profession involves transforming the nursing workforce in terms of capacity, skills and competence in meeting the healthcare needs of the future. In this sense, the IOM has the task of producing a policy action-oriented report used in completing the future nursing policies. Nevertheless, Smolenski and Goudreau (2013) admit that the transformation of the nursing profession involves transforming the practice, education and nursing leadership, as well as ensuring proper healthcare and workforce data.

Importance of IOM in Transforming the Nursing Practice

According to the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), nurses have the freedom to practice to the full extent of their education and training. Nurses have the ability to serve as leaders in the healthcare systems; however, Hewitt (2016) states that there are a number of policies that have laid barriers in the nursing practice, thus, preventing the transformation of it. Ideally, the role of nurses should not be assumed to be patient care alone. Smolenski and Goudreau (2013) reiterate that nurses should be considered as individuals with innovative ideas on how to improve the healthcare systems. Challenges, such as aging workforce, high nurse turnover, demographic and cultural challenges and fragmentation of the healthcare systems have made it difficult for graduating nurses to join the workforce. 

The differences in policies of various states of the United States have also impacted the nursing practice. For instance, Hewitt (2016) indicates that there are states where the scope-of-practice for nurses includes seeing patients and prescribing medication for the patients. RWJF and IOM reports that there are many states that have not considered such practical initiatives, which are important in transforming the nursing practice. Management of nurse transition from schools to practice is also a big challenge to the nursing practice. According to the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), most nurses lack residency programs that enable them to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge for practice.  According to studies, residency programs have improved the quality of nursing professions. To this end, RWJF and IOM recommend the creation of more residency programs for all nurses graduating from nursing institutions so that they can acquire the necessary knowledge for nursing practice. 


The Role of State-based Action Coalitions

Washington State Proposes RN to BSN Direct Transfer Agreement to Facilitate Academic Progression

Washington State is one of the states in the US which has spearheaded the transformation in nursing education. As one way of transforming the nursing profession, the state has proposed RN to BSN direct transfer agreement. This will allow nurses to advance in their nursing profession to become highly skilled and educated in providing safe and high-quality care. Prevost and Dennison (2012) postulate that proper nursing education will allow both current and future nurses to provide safe and high-quality nursing care. As the nursing profession becomes one of the vital components of healthcare provision in the United States, the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011) acknowledges the need to transform nursing education. As the world changes, the nursing roles also change, leading to high demand for extensive education. Nurses need competencies in a plethora of fields, such as community/public health, geriatrics, leadership, healthy policing, teamwork, research and evidence-based practice. In order to be competent in all these fields, pressure must be increased on nursing education.  In addition to this, many studies have shown that higher educated nursing staff reduces risk of mortality, reduces infection rates and improves patient outcomes (Aiken, 2012). 

To meet the IOM’s target of 80% BSN nurses by 2020, states must ensure that they enrol more nurses for BSN programs; however, there are major challenges that affect Registered Nurses. These can be the stress of going back to school, impacts on family, lack of available resources/funding, lack of flexibility with school and work schedules, and many others. According to Washington State, most nurses play the role of making critical decisions for vulnerable patients in our hospitals. As such, they should understand the mechanics of the life-saving technologies. Additionally, the nurses must also understand the management of chronic illnesses by preventing the acute episodes of diseases and infections; however, such complex demands involving technology and professional decision-making require significant transformation of the nursing education. Most nurses work with physicians, pharmacists and researchers with high-level education; therefore, they are left under pressure to obtain similar levels of training (Prevost & Dennison, 2012).

The healthcare systems have evolved higher expectations for the quality of patient care. In order to realize the goals of nursing, nurses must have good education and training; therefore, Washington State seeks to meet the recommendations by the IOM, which ensure that the nursing profession should offer nurses seamless opportunity to upgrade their education. The state believes that nurses should have the opportunity of transitioning from RN to BSN directly. This will equip many nurses with skills and abilities to deal with the ever-changing healthcare environment. Through these stages, the nurses are able to acquire the necessary educational skills and knowledge in providing high-quality care; nonetheless, the efforts in improving the quality of nursing education can only be achieved by ensuring diversity in the healthcare practices. To achieve this, Hewitt (2016) admits that nurses must be taken through education curricula that offer them traditional and innovative strategies in giving the appropriate healthcare to patients. Therefore, the RWJF and IOM recommend that nurses must have abilities to work with diverse communities (Hewitt, 2016).

New Co-leads for Washington Nursing Action Coalition Leadership Group

The State of Washington has a new co-lead, Steven J. Palazzo, PHD, MD, RN, who joined with Debra Brinker, MSN, RN, and they will help the state in focusing on specific recommendations of the 2011 IOM National Report. Transformation of the healthcare systems requires proper leadership; however, the nursing profession must ensure that good leaders are produced through the nursing programs. In collaboration with the other healthcare professionals in the healthcare settings, the nurses must acquire proper leadership skills. This will make nurses accountable for their own decisions and actions within the healthcare settings.  According to the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) and Robert Wood Johnson (2011), all levels of nursing require leadership skills. For instance, nurses must be individuals capable of making proper judgments and policies in order to avoid errors in healthcare. Nurses also serve on advisory committees and boards, as well as commissions where they engage in policy-making. In order to participate in such capacities, nurses will require proper leadership skills. 

Washington State nurses have challenges and barriers in policy making. Most of the policies used in healthcare systems in Washington State are formulated in the absence of the nurses; however, the state has proposed the inclusion of the new co-leads in the leadership and policy making to ensure that nurses become part of active leadership in the Washington State healthcare systems. Nursing advocates in Washington State have noted that there are over 100,000 RNs and LPNs in the state; as such, most nurses are involved in direct decision making processes in most healthcare systems in the state. However, existing policies create barriers for nurses to make critical decisions concerning patients by not elaborating or clarifying their scope of practice. Nonetheless, advocates from Washington State have proposed inclusion of more nurses in health system leadership in the state.  

In the future, strong leadership capabilities among nurses will be critical, especially in ensuring that changes are implemented to achieve the high quality services. As such, RWJF and IOM cite the need to ensure that leadership-related competencies must be introduced in nursing curricula. Hewitt (2016) added that nurses should possess and demonstrate the leadership capabilities inside and outside all the healthcare settings. In the future, the scope of practice for nurses will expand, thus subjecting nurses to an array of responsibilities. Some of the nursing responsibilities will require proper planning, policy making, guiding and educating other professionals. In order to assume all these responsibilities, the nursing profession must consider leadership competency as one of the requirements for transforming the future of nursing (Smolenski & Goudreau, 2013).


As the world changes, healthcare needs also change. In the United States, nurses are considered as the primary caregivers. Nevertheless, the nursing profession experiences challenges, especially with the changes in the healthcare systems. According to RWJF and IOM, the nursing profession requires transformation in terms of education, practice and leadership. The scope of nursing practice must be expanded in order to allow nurses to practice their skills to full extent. In order to ensure high quality services, nurses must be allowed to advance their education in the future. Washington State has proposed a direct RN to BSN progression program to allow more nurses opportunity to advance their careers; moreover, nurses must be able to demonstrate diversity in their practice. On the other hand, Washington State has noted nurses are involved in critical decision-making for patients as well as communities. As such, the state advocates propose that nurses must have proper leadership skills in order to be competent in policy and decision making. To this end, transformation of the future of nursing depends on transformation of the nursing education, leadership and practice.


Hewitt, P. (2016). The Call for 80% BSNs by 2020. Nurse Educator, 41(1), 29. doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000184

Institute of Medicine, (. (U.S.), & Robert Wood Johnson, F. (2011). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Prevost, S. S., & Dennison, R. (2012). Future of Advanced Registered Nursing Practice. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders.

Smolenski, M. C., & Goudreau, K. A. (2013). Health Policy and Advanced Practice Nursing: Impact and Implications. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Kendall-Gallagher, D., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D.M., Cimiotti, J.P. (2011). Nurse Specialty Certification, Inpatient Mortality and Failure to Rescue. Journal of Nurse Scholarship, 43(2), 188-194. 

Nursing Leadership & Management Lab-NURS 490L Nurse Leader Experience

Nurse Leader Experience

           Alexandria Cole was a new pediatrician socialist at the Georgia Regional Hospital Nursing Care. A Paediatrician is a specialist caring for babies until the age of 18. They keenly manage the behavioral, physical, and mental care diagnosing a range of childhood diseases. After orientation, he was immediately assigned by the board to head the new pediatrician department. He noticed admissions and discharge rates were high. The pediatrics department is very important because of its bulkiness and resourcefulness regarding the medical field. Cole called a meeting purposely to highlight the problem of admissions and discharge rates, which brought about computer systems' use towards recognizing efficiency. He did this as a short-term problem-solving strategy as he took the matter further to the board for further scrutiny.  

           In his supervisory endeavors, he used a Laissez-Faire Leadership style. We enjoyed much freedom with little control. A group decided whereby the leader's activity levels were minimal; hence, he abdicated the responsibilities. The most important aspect about Paediatricians is decision making because of the many medical dilemmas associated with the medical field. In this regard, Laissez-faire leadership encouraged group or teamwork decision-making, which brought about success (Cope & Murray, 2017). Besides the Laissez-Faire Leadership style, he uses transformational leadership because of his encouragement, inspiration, and motivation to other health practitioners on innovation. He creates change with the pursuit of both the mission and the vision of the health facility.

           Leadership ability is merited by a person’s level of effectiveness (Marquis & Huston, 2017). However, we have differences between leadership and management. Leaders are based on influenced and shared meaning, while managers are based on authority alone. Leaders assume an informal role while managers assume a formally designated role; hence leaders achieve their position while managers get assigned the position based on promotions or appointments. A leader is an overall manager, while managers have designated responsibilities such as; hiring, budgets, and firing. Critically, leaders require initiative and independent thinking while managers use proposed effective skills. 

           In the pediatrics department, the leader established a quality improvement strategy purposely for tackling population health initiatives is seriously considered. For example, consumer focus must be based on the care given, experience, and decision-making processes (Whitehead, 2010). Besides consumer focus, we also encourage a strong partnership with our clients and colleagues. Bonding with clients makes them feel satisfied and trustworthy; forming partnerships with other leaders across the system makes a broad human resource. The pediatric department also has a Quality and Improvement culture where we give experts responsibility to improve medical sectors based on experience. Lastly, we share and align metrics or data to come up with long-term solutions.  

           He also comes up with policies that standardized operational activities. He provided direction when dealing with health and safety, legal liabilities, and regulatory requirements. He also uses the formulated policies to develop specific and broad objectives for the desired outcome (Marquis & Huston, 2017). Further, he used that opportunity to talk to other health practitioners, which help them understand their responsibilities and roles within the health facility. He also reduced the services' costs to clients, encouraging more and more to come for pediatric services. 

           Constant monitoring, inclusive problem solving, and free inquiry because of good communication between colleagues' safe patient care delivery have been achieved. Additionally, he did incorporate technology that is more efficient for in-service delivery. As a leader, I would incorporate; integrity, courage, initiative, optimism leadership styles into my leadership style because they are core qualities for prosperity.


Cope, V., & Murray, M. (2017). Leadership styles in nursing. Nursing Standard31(43). 

Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2017). Socializing and educating staff in a learning organization. In Leadership roles and management functions in nursing (pp. 407-449). Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia. 

Whitehead, D. K. (2010). Essentials of nursing leadership and management. FA Davis. 




Leadership in Diverse Organization

Diversity and Leadership Assignment Paper

In contemporary times, diversity matters. Diversity in a health organization ensures all backgrounds, races, beliefs, and perspectives are represented adequately. It is important because, with diversity, the medical fields will have adverse experiences concerning medical services.  Patients are also diverse because they include individuals from every gender, race, and culture, and therefore diversity is important to not only the medical field but also the totality of humanity. 

           In the medical field, diversity has many benefits for both the medical field and patients. Diversity embraces higher employee morale because of the competition and a stronger feeling of inclusion associated with the community healthcare environment. Because of the morale, the healthcare environment seems safer and more enjoyable (Sfantou et al., 2017). To patients are satisfied and trust the services they are given because of the determination that healthcare workers portray. In a safe and enjoyable environment, healthcare workers will always deliver their best because they enjoy the facility and patients' services and interaction. Besides communicating and understanding, diversity instills a positive attitude towards patients because of the healthcare workforce's quality (Sfantou et al., 2017). Espousing diversity in our health facilities will bring about a notion of cultural competence and the much-needed ability for health care workers to provide and offer all-round social, cultural, and linguistic needs of the client.

           Diversity is in itself unity; in healthcare facilities, diversity could mean better care because of varied medical experiences from a diverse population. Working in a diverse healthcare organization goes with stronger individual motivation. When diversity is lacking, workers may feel inferior because they would not know how to express their unique talents and personal traits because of their colleagues' presumptions. Importantly, when working in a diverse healthcare organization, it is easier to generate a wide range of perspectives that can lead to amicable problem-solving during the emergence of medical dilemmas, which are very common in the healthcare environment. New ideas generated from embracing a diverse population can bring about a chance for greater innovation and operational excellence. 

           Critically, diversity is more inclined to better results because of the range of experiences that diversity upholds. However, while embracing diversity, we must note that diversity without inclusion is ineffective. Inclusion is a cardinal fact in the concept of diversity and should never be ignored. With a diverse healthcare environment, we create space for more respect and understanding in the many cultures within us, improving humanitarian ties. We also embrace more creativity and innovativeness because we allow us to learn from other people how they think about a specific aspect. Diversity in healthcare is a move to a global health workforce which is very important in fighting worldwide health problems. With diversity, we have better healthcare services because of experiences generated from other people. 

           With diversity, patients will be enjoying unlimited trust, better healthcare, and experienced quality services from a diverse healthcare team. Patients will also feel satisfied because they would have been represented, having a perspective of empowerment and asserting positive results. Patients must be acknowledged in a diverse healthcare workforce; they feel safe in people who are similar to them hence the high expectation of positive results. Patients are diverse; they would only feel positive when they have somebody they understand best-concerning communication, among other diversity attributes. Diversity will also bring about a deeper understanding of the patient's social life, which is very important in constructing a medical history, prognosis, and patient diagnosis. 

           Having understood that diversity and inclusion are key and progressive towards positive results in the health care system, it is important that we recognize the major barriers that deter healthcare facilities from achieving sustainable diversity in their workforce. Resistance to change is associated with an organization clinching on its old ways; they are regarded as conservatives. They do not want to incorporate diversity because they are subject to other cultures or experiences. We should be ready to accept change, accept that we must learn, reduce our ego and invite new concepts onboard. 

           The other barrier is the problem of integrating with other cultures, believes, and diversity attributes. It may not be easy to help a diverse employee integrate. Therefore, health facilities should incorporate programs and strategies that help train diverse employees and make them feel respected and honored. They will deliver (Ogbolu, Scrandis & Fitzpatrick, 2018). Integration can revolve around workplace equity, work responsibility, among others. It is key that we see every employee as a respected person regardless of their diverse attributes. 

           Often workplace diversity has a problem with communication. For example, poor communication will lead to poor services in healthcare facilities, which may lead to unintentional offense and ultimate mistrust based on workplace practices. Ogbolu, Scrandis & Fitzpatrick (2018), diversity, on the other hand, invite employees from different communities to curb communication. Even in assigning duties, it is very difficult for doctors to assign duties to nurses because of the communication barrier. 

           In understanding diversity better, a transformational leadership style will be applicable. Transformational leadership style is a theory of leadership where leaders or people of high position work with other team members to identify needed change, coming up with a vision or a road map that they must work within, and inspirations that will keep members committed to their work (Galli, 2019). It is a core facet of the Full Range Leadership Model. Leaders who adopt the said leadership style are regarded as energetic, enthusiastic, and passionate about their work; they are selfless towards working for the course. 

           According to the leadership style, leaders have high morality and motivation standards, allowing diverse employees to understand expectations and the change that diversity will bring to the health sector in totality (Galli, 2019). For example, a transformational leader will handle the integration problem as a barrier to diversity by fully introducing programs that help new diverse employees train and feel comfortable in their new workplaces. With the leadership style, leaders welcome change, new perspectives, and attitudes towards their medical environment. 

           Like transformational leadership style, Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership embraces employee-cantered leadership style, bringing about all aspects of employees onboard regardless of diversity attributes. Workplace equity, ethics, and responsibility would not be assigned concerning the diversity of the intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Transformational leaders are often challenging the status quo, encouraging creativity and innovativeness. Here medical practitioners will be able to explore new ways and opportunities in the medical field. They also offer support because they believe in supporting constructive relationships embedded in the visions and missions. Transformational leaders also serve as role models because of their trust and respect from their juniors. Therefore, a transformative leader will embrace diversity based on its positiveness towards a team, especially the healthcare workforce. 

           Besides offering healthcare services, healthcare facilities are a massive business that earns profit and trust, and confidence from their clients. Diversity will improve employee morale that will induce a progressive workforce that will create stiff competition in a healthcare environment. Because of the diverse cultures, they would have diverse experiences, which brings about a competitive advantage (Cooke et al., 2019). Patients all overwork towards receiving better services, which is only feasible by diversifying the workforce because of communication, problem-solving, and working in a safe and happy environment. Conversely, it increases innovative ideas because of the myriad skills associated with diversity, hence significantly improving healthcare systems.  

           To sum, diversity brings about different perspectives, a new breath towards healthcare which is a key driver for better healthcare services. Patients will trust the medical health facility; healthcare providers will learn new experiences and increase their body of knowledge regarding the medical field because of diversity. Embracing diversity, therefore, allows better and constructive relationships between health workers and patients, which is important in the path to healing. Transformational leadership encourages trust, credibility, and diversity, which brings about friendship which will motivate employees greatly. Transformational leadership espouses visionary, inspiration, and thoughtful personalities to consider diversity because they strive beyond expectations which is only feasible by incorporating diversity and inclusion. It is also important to note that inclusion is important, cardinal, in the whole concept of diversity.


Cooke, D. T., Olive, J., Godoy, L., Preventza, O., Mathisen, D. J., & Prager, R. L. (2019). The importance of a diverse specialty: introducing the STS Workforce on Diversity and Inclusion. The Annals of thoracic surgery108(4), 1000-1005.

Galli, B. J. (2019). A shared leadership approach to transformational leadership theory: Analysis of research methods and philosophies. In Scholarly Ethics and Publishing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 751-790). IGI Global. 

Ogbolu, Y., Scrandis, D. A., & Fitzpatrick, G. (2018). Barriers and facilitators of care for diverse patients: Nurse leader perspectives and nurse manager implications. Journal of nursing management26(1), 3-10. 

Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A. E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017, December). Importance of leadership style towards quality of care measures in healthcare settings: a systematic review. In Healthcare (Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 73). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 

Evidence Based Practice: Negative Effects of Social Media 

Social Media and Mental Health

As nursing students and nurses, it is important to understand how social media is altering the world around us. We must show resilience and professionalism when it comes to the matter. Confidentiality, personal productivity, and risk of social media abuse are amongst the top issues. Soon education about social media, abuse could be implemented in our education training in the nursing field.  

Literature Review

           Impacts of social media in nurses vary depending “particular nature of the nurse’s conduct.” Social media therefore must be associated with the posted content, which may impact not only the psychological state of the nurse but also the institution the nurse is working for. However, social media can also be used constructively to promote the health of patients by inquiring about specific prognoses and medical situations over online platforms. After the discovery of social media, it has been an innovative tool in the medical field however, it also has its disadvantages when used wrongly by nurses towards patients well being and the reputation of a health institution. 

           In nursing social media is regarded not as a familiar phenomenon through its application. (Kung & OH, 2014). Kung and OH conducted a study intending to see the various impacts of social media on nursing, their findings were as follows; out of 410 registered nurses, over 94% were members of the social media platforms. Only 1% asserted their disregard for online or social media activities citing that they were held up by work. Piscotty et al (2013), hints that social media has a broad relationship with many careers and nursing is among the many careers which have been adopted but the policies and regulations towards the usage of social media are still based on the universal spectrum. 

           Mariano et al (2013), conducted a descriptive- correlation where they pursued a specific line of thought; social media, and nurse-patient interaction and according to them, “nurses who used social media for a longer duration daily showed an increase in both verbal and non-verbal social skills.” However, the usage of social media can be positive or negative. Social media has also taken most of the quality bedside time that patients must be receiving from their nurses because nurses have been addicted to social media sites (Bilgrin, 2018). Such actions are against nurses’ regulations but we cannot assume that they are not happening, a nurse addicted to social media will give less attention to patients, develop psychological disorders especially insomnia which will significantly reduce the quality of life of a patient. The resilience to following professional rules is key in the identification of a dedicated nurse because of their principality towards working promoting health, either by using social media constructively or doing away with it to give the patient quality time of nursing and care. 

           Therefore, according to Ryan (2016), “it is exceptional for the professional working nurse to maintain their professional integrity whilst using social media.” If any content affects either the patient or the health facility's reputation on social media, the nurse would be working against work ethics which states on patient confidentiality. Besides health, social media affects the normal functioning of how we perceive things which may be detrimental to patient’s life because we will not have the 'nursing care’ to offer to patients. Stephenson (2019), has another perspective of social media towards nursing. According to him, social media can influence resilience by inducing recovery to PTSD, or long-term psychological disorders making nurses adapt to the new situation associated with realities, challenges, and opportunities associated with the nursing profession. 


           This study has used other literature associated with the concept of negative effects of social media to come up with assumptions and try to fill the gap on the specific effects of social media on nursing practice. Most studies associated with this area have covered the effects of technology in nursing but less has been done on the impacts of social media as a facet of technology in nursing practice. 

           The literature also was shaped by studies that embraced quantitative analysis was used to find the relationship between social media addiction and resilience associated with psychological input by social media. The studies also used research groups which were used to give adequate assumptions towards the study. 

           The combination of the literature used in this paper highlighted the resilience, the effects of social media which were important in making assumptions in this paper. The literature, therefore, has been cardinal in advising the paper towards the deliberations associated with the effects of social media on nursing. 


           The nursing profession is one of the important careers that must be taken seriously with regards to the ethics and codes of conduct because of the noble purpose of promotion of health. However bad usage of social media may lead to poor quality of information circulation, especially patients’ information which should be protected, it can also damage the professional image, bring about psychological torture, and also may breach patients’ privacy among other key aspects. 


Bilgrin, O. (2018). Effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on

Kung, Y., OH, S. 2014. Characteristics of nurses who use social media. CIN: Computers, informatics, nursing, 32 (2), 64-72. Accessed on 02 February 2021. 

Mariano, m., Maniego, J., Manila, H., Mapanoo, R., Maquiran, K., Macindo, J., Tejero, L., Torres, G. 2017. Social media use profile, social Skills, and nurse-patient interaction among registered nurses in tertiary hospitals: A structural equation model analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies. Accessed on 02 February 2021. https://www- 

Piscotty, R., Voepel-Lewis, T., Lee, H., Annis-Emoett, A., Lee, E., Kalisch, B. 2013. To tweet or not to tweet? Nurses, social media, and patient care. Nursing Management, 44 (5), 52-53. Accessed on 02 February 2021. weet__Nurses,_social_media,.12.aspx 

Ryan, G. 2016. International Perspectives on social media guidance for nurses: a content analysis. Nursing Management. 23,8,28-35. Accessed on 02 February 2021. 

Stephenson, J. (2019, September 11). Social media addiction 'adversely affecting' nurses'       Social  media addiction among university students. Retrieved from



Watson’s Theory of Human Caring in Nursing.

Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring 

Nursing is caring and improvement of the quality of life. Caring, therefore, brings about a positive energy that rewards the patient positively concerning healing and the quality of life. Inspired by Florence Nightingale's vision which states, "the role of a nurse is to put her patient in the best position to be the heart of healing" (Watson & Woodward, 2020). Caring, therefore, can be done by actively engaging through authentic presence, caring, and intentionality, hence increasing the potential and the ability for patients to heal. Theories in nursing help to concreate the development of nursing practices which may influence the zeal for professionalism. Unlike any career, nursing plays a cardinal role in the scope of humanity. Areas where nursing theories have been influential, are; nursing education and leadership. Generally, the application of nursing theories has a great impact on the overall practice of a nurse. Watson’s caring theory can be successfully be applied in understanding the holistic manner of taking care of a patient. 

           Jean Watson’s Caring theory has been very important in many nursing fields and beyond. Watson's theory asserts that "caring is at the center of nursing practice" (Watson & Woodward, 2020). The concept of caring considers patients' account of physical, psychological, and spiritual values. By understanding such important aspects of a patient, a nurse can react, ensuring that the patient is stable and satisfied. The theory, therefore, portrays a nurse as a leader, a moral person who promotes wellness to patients who expects nothing but care and monitoring. Significantly the theory gives credence to a nurses’ moral ability and responsibility to care and create the much-needed trust that steers positive results because of the attitude and the patient’s perspective towards health practitioners. Integration of the concept of Watson's theory of care in nursing very important as it offers patients with constructive nurse’s presence fostering health and promotion of wellness regardless of the situation. 

           The theory critically embraces the humanistic aspects of nursing and their relationship with science, especially nursing practices. The theory states, “nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick, and restoring health” (Watson & Woodward, 2020). Therefore, besides health promotion, it is also associated with the treatment of diseases. Watson was inspired by the primary knowledge that caring is cardinal in any nursing practice. 

Application of Watson’s Theory of caring

           The theory identifies three meta paradigms that shape its execution: human beings, health, and nursing. According to Watson, human beings are valuable people who should receive care, respect, nurture, among other humanistic natures. Accordingly, a patient's philosophical view is part of a caregiver's self; therefore, human life overrides anything and should be regarded as important anywhere and in any circumstances.  Health is another aspect that Watson considered in caring. Social, mental, and physical attributes must be balanced for effective health promotion. The knowledge associated with nursing knowledge is science and the relation to health-illness experiences. Nursing knowledge brings out the professional, personal, scientific, and ethical care attributes of a caregiver. 

           According to Watson & Woodward (2020), the application also is embedded in curative factors. These processes involve ten factors that are important and act as principal standpoints towards care in patients. According to the carative processes, nurses can well demonstrate nursing when they use a formulated humanistic-altruistic value system. A nurse should show unselfish concerns for the patient's welfare (Rosa, Estes & Watson, 2017). To achieve such nursing practices, a nurse must follow the code of conduct that ensures and attribute unselfish nature to putting a patient's life over anything. 

           The second factor asks caregivers to instill faith or hope in the patient to keep a positive attitude towards the patient, which is very important for promoting health (Watson & Woodward, 2020). Hope also can alleviate the pain associated with the disease or condition. Pain can be traced back from mental activities which, when directed into the perspective of hope, pain can be reduced significantly; additionally, hope can be used to reassure the patient on the disease status, for example, HIV or cancer patients; hence generally, faith or hope is cardinal in prolonging patients’ life. 

           The third factor is; cultivation of sensitivity for both self and others (Watson & Woodward, 2020). In caregiving, nothing should be taken for granted; hence, embracing sensitivity for self and others is important; sensitivity also resides in caregiving's passion and motivation. The first three carative factors form their basis from a philosophical foundation. Fourth, nurses are responsible for developing trust to help patients' minds of getting well (Watson & Woodward, 2020). Trust is very important in creating a healing attitude to patients, which is key in promoting good health. As Watson & Woodward (2020) assert, the fifth factor is; nurses understand how to express their feelings towards patients; patients should be shown a positive feeling, hence creating positive attitudes towards patients. 

           Six, nurses encounter lots of practice dilemmas in decision-making and solving problems (Watson & Woodward, 2020); hence, they should develop a work culture that embraces better methods of solving problems in the nursing environment and swift decision-making situations e along when nursing a patient. Seven, nursing is a career that is merited in learning new things daily (Watson & Woodward, 2020); therefore, caring should promote teaching and learn to both patients and colleagues. Eight, nurses are expected to promote a supportive environment towards patients to make them have a speedy recovery. Nine, nurses should assist patients with gratitude, especially with basic human needs, and finally, acknowledging phenomenological forces. 

           Watson's theory is logical because tes and the theoretical assumption are practical and can be integrated into caregiving practices. Additionally, they are relatively simple, generalizable which makes them applicable anywhere and in any situation.  The theory is characterized as question-based, based on phenomenological studies; it does not state hypotheses but answers them, making the theory easily understood (Wei, Fazzone, Sitzman & Hardin, 2019). Hence, it has been useful in guiding and improving nursing practices. Its characteristics and attributes have been fully recognized by famous humanists' scholars, philosophers, psychologists, and developmentalists as a legit source of making nursing practices better. 

           As a strength, the theory acknowledges the patient like family, community, or culture. It also makes the patient the focus point for nursing practices rather than making technology the focus of practices. However, it is limited because the patients' biophysical needs are not given considered as important (Pajnkihar, McKenna, Štiglic & Vrbnjak, 2017). Additionally, the ten carative factors refute the psychosocial needs of a person. To sum, Watson's theory has been a great achievement in promoting health in nursing practices by addressing epistemological factors associated with caring (Constantinides, 2019). The theory also reveals that the relationship between patients and caregivers is important and a special facet that must be considered when making important nursing decisions. For proper caregiving, one can apply the carative factors to develop excellent caregiving to the patient promoting health and attitudes towards faster healing.


Constantinides, S. M. (2019). Compassionate knowing: Building a concept grounded in Watson’s theory of caring science. Nursing science quarterly32(3), 219-225. 

Pajnkihar, M., McKenna, H. P., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). Fit for practice: Analysis and evaluation of Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing science quarterly30(3), 243-252. 

Rosa, W., Estes, T., & Watson, J. (2017). Caring science conscious dying: an emerging metaparadigm. Nursing science quarterly30(1), 58-64. 

Watson, J., & Woodward, T. K. (2020). Jean Watson's theory of human caring. SAGE Publications Limited. 

Wei, H., Fazzone, P. A., Sitzman, K., & Hardin, S. R. (2019). The Current Intervention Studies Based on Watson's Theory of Human Caring: A Systematic Review. International Journal for Human Caring23(1). 

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